The planning team constitutes of  1/the Owner  2/the Food and beverage consultant  3/the Architect  4/the Financial advisor/controller.

The planning team ----

The owner-sets operational concepts, legal matters----
The architect-planning of work place----
Food service consultant-menu planning, equipments, storage, cooking style----
Marketing team-market survey---
Financial advisor-capital & operational budgets, business forecast
Planning an effective dining area ----
First see that you are planning a new one or modifying an old one----
Type of food service facility-ex coffee shop, snack bar, banquets, drive in etc----
Type of clientele-income group, domestic  or foreigner----
Seating capacity, Timings, Type of service, Standards, Menu,----
Other requirements like outdoor catering, parking place & future expansion plans

The owner’s goal ----

Sets objectives for the project----
Sets operational concepts clear to all team  members.---
Clears legal & regulatory concepts, deeds, licensing
Gets the market analysis done ----
Decides & approve all financial matters----
Develops Standard operating procedures----
Selects & approves designs & plans submitted to him

The architects work ---

-Building orientation, structural design-----
Selection of building material, trafic ----
Service areas,  ventilation, exit & entrance ------
Plumbing, lighting, drainage, décor-------
Preparing blue prints for kitchen & dining areas-----
Preparing bid documents, analyzing----
Should be creative with experience in restaurant /hotel planning

Food service consultant’s work ----

-Development of menu, food portions, and prices formats-----
Methods of service of food----
Prepare profit & loss statements, costing, sales----
Create dining room atmosphere along with architect-----
Advice owner on operational policies-----
Help in analysis of bid----
Work closely with architect----
Manpower planning for restaurant

The marketing team ----

Market survey to be done----
Product knowledge- branding, USP, famous chefs, managers, package----
Place –accessibility, location----
Price- tariff, discounts, happy hours, corkage  waiving etc.----
Promotion- PR, sales promotion, media, advertisement, mails, festivals
People-sales staff, front of the house staff, training---
Expectations from our product, now & in future----
Identify type of clientele

Market research ---Data collection ---
-Data is collected from----
Government, tourists boards, tourist arrival patterns Publishers of guide books, journals, hotels, popular suppliers----
Educational establishments, research papers on hotels by students----
Field research, surveys in hotels, bars, restaurants-----
Survey for nationalities, arrival patterns, eating habits, APC, tourist segments etc

Scope of Market research -----

-we come to know  about –
Community-total market, trends, business segments----
customer-social & economic level, age, gender, frequency of usage, behavior----
Company’s own-strength & weakness position image, product & services----
competition- future trends, up gradation in terms of  menu, staff, ambience, technology


Has to be designed for maximum efficiency----
Includes kitchen ranges, work place (aisle) floor space, storage place----
Menu analysis is important & work place is created as per menu
Aisle is space required for a worker to accomplish manual Work-----
Area required in standing position for a worker is 24”(inches)

AFTER   Analysis of menu

The Designer calculates the work area space, for keeping equipment, tables
Space for storage of incoming material---
Space for workers to move around---
Space for hand tools---
Mounted or free standing equipments required for processing


Area required to work in standing position for one employee = 24”wide
Ø  In equipment projection place (like drawers etc)=36”wide because drawers will open & occupy some place
Ø  When 2 workers  are working with  back to back area required is=42”wide
Ø  2 workers  are working  back to back with equipment projection area required=42”+ 6” wide
Ø  Arc on working table=16” where hands can cover the area is an Arc
Ø  Most of the tasks  can be done in 2 ft x 4ft areas

For special service 24 to 32 square feet
Coffee shop 18 to 24 square feet
For calculation of area per guest---First calculate area for 4 guests---Suppose table is 3 feet X 3 feet
Leaving 1½ feet space on each sides of the table---Area required for 4 guest=9’X9’=81 sq feet-----81 divided by 4 =20.25 square feet per guest
Restaurant Turnover -----Means the average time the seat is occupied-------Seat occupied for 30 minutes, turnover is 2 guests per hour---

To increase turnover, menu items should have a short processing time----Clearance to be done in time
Restaurant should not be very comfortable----Tables should be close to each other
Take orders and serve in time----Should have proper equipments & tools

Storage area calculation -----example---There is 8400 meals to be stored
Each meal say is of ½ pound----Total weight is 4200 pounds----This 4200 pounds is divided by 45 to convert into cubic feet
4200/45=93.3 means 93.3 cubic feet----So the space required to store 8400 meals will be 93.3 cu. ft.
If height of shelf is 1½ feet then 93.3 / 1.5 = 62.2 Sq. ft


Normal table heights=36 to 39 inches
Ø  Sinks, for light tasks = 10” to 12” below elbow
Ø  Sinks for heavy tasks =16” to 18”below elbow
Ø  Winter temperature=18.3°c to 21.1ºc
Ø  Summer temperature=20.6°c to22.8°c
Ø  Humidity should be 40% to 60%
Ø  Light in kitchen work area=30 to 40 foot candles
Ø  Noise should be below 50 decibels
Ø  Ventilation= 5 cubic feet of fresh air per minute
Ø  Colors=blue & green are pleasing to eyes



There is a restaurant guest complaint on table 24. -------Those simple words can absolutely ruin a perfect night----It could snowball into an impossible situation,-----It could even cost the restaurant thousands of rupees-----It doesn’t have to go down like that however----It needs to be acted on quickly, and in the proper way

Case study
Ø  There is a restaurant guest complaint on table 24
Ø  Those simple words can absolutely ruin a perfect night
Ø  It could snowball into an impossible situation, it could even cost the restaurant thousands of rupees
Ø  It doesn’t have to go down like that however
Ø  It needs to be acted on quickly, and in the proper way

Gather information -----Be a good listener and you can save a bad experience for the guest
Ø  Note the guests comments
Ø  Walk away from the table with valuable information
Ø  Whatever you are doing at the time is not near as important as guest.
Ø  Respond to a guest, take action

Approaching the table
Ø  Approach the table politely and authoritatively
Ø  Say something to the effect of “Hello, my name is Soman”
Ø  I am the manager, I heard that there is something  spoiling  your perfect evening
Ø  I am here for you may I know the problem?”

Ø  Once you have heard the guests assessment of the situation
Ø  Ask questions---Agree on the course of action
Ø  You need to make a decision of how to take care of the guests
Ø  But how to make sure the problem is never repeated again
Ø  Go beyond the guests expectations
Ø  Never let a dissatisfied guest go out of the restaurant

Corrective measures
Ø  Keep in mind the profitability of the restaurant
Ø  Balance the two in your mind while you  do something for the guest
Ø  Never take things off the check, discount is last option
Ø  Buy the guest a dessert for some trivial complaints
Ø  Buy them desert, a bottle of wine, a round of drinks

Use guest’s comments
Ø  Use your restaurant guest complaints
Ø  They are part of the business
Ø  Now that the issue with the guest has been corrected make improvements for future
Ø  Guests  once again happy and loyal customers
Ø  It’s time to deal with the other side. How did that happen!
Ø  Remember ,one dissatisfied guest goes & tell 20 people about the problem

  • Nervous- tired, fussy, unreasonable, cross=We  got  to be- quite, calm, considerate
  • Dependent– undecided, timid, sensitive=We  got to be- gentle, helpful, sympathetic
  • Disagreeable- inquisitive, talking, insulting=We  got to be- knowledgeable, courteous, self controlled
  • Trying- indifferent, silent=We  got to be tactful, explanatory
  • Common sense customer- are intelligent=We got to be efficient from our side
Ø  Reliability- to serve as per promise, dependably & accurately
Ø  Tangibles- the appearance of facilities, equipments, material
Ø  Responsiveness- the willingness to serve or do the job for the guest
Ø  Assurance- developing trust & confidence with your product
Ø  Empathy- the caring individual provided to the customer

Ø  Jan Carlson ,CEO of Scandinavian air lines—
Ø  Is flying back to his home town, is half asleep
Ø  He Suddenly enraptures the moments where a particular staff of a hotel had taken special care about him
Ø  This image or perception will remain in his mind forever, This is called as golden moment of truth

Ø  Guest buys us our bread & butter---Guest buys us the television, bikes, cars &  gadgets
Ø  Provides us residence, education to our children
Ø  The salary is brought to us by the guest
Ø  You remember this & you will never let a dissatisfied customer go out of the hotel

Guest satisfaction
Ø  Buy them desert , a bottle of wine, a round of drinks, and A Complementary fruit basket
Ø  I would rather buy a guests meal, or even the whole tables meal
Ø  Even give them a gift certificate to come back  before I would let a unhappy guest  walk out of my restaurant

Valuable information
Ø  Do this, and you can not only save a bad experience for the guest
Ø  Put a halt to the spread of negative comments on the street, Improve your services
Ø  and walk away from the table with valuable information

Ø  The customer is always the customer and this means simply that solving the problem is often more important than who is right
Ø  If you can solve their problem without blaming yourself or others, you will reduce stress, everyone will feel better and you will be on your way to            CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Ø  Your attitude towards customers influences your behaviour
Ø  You cannot always camouflage how you feel
Ø  your attitude determines the level of job satisfaction
Ø  Your attitude affects everyone  who comes in contact with you
Ø  Tone and body language reflect your attitude
Ø  Your attitude is not fixed, the attitude you choose to display is up to YOU

Why do guests travel?  Types of travelers----1/Holiday makers    2/For business   3/Pilgrims    4 Sports, sports, adventure    5/Education     6Cultural exchange

Guest expectations
Ø  Value for money— (More than money) in terms  of service;  product,  ambience, decor
Ø  F&B Service is an admixture of skill, showmanship, diplomacy, sociability
Ø  We have to provide, more than the value of money, we sell our services

The value of staff members
Ø  Hotels have beautiful buildings, with nice rooms, restaurants & other facilities
Ø  What makes all the difference is the staff
Ø  Honesty  always pays in long run
Ø  Always work with sense of ownership
Ø  Trained  & dedicated staff is the biggest asset of any organization

Behavior issues
Ø  Staff knows the job, eager to work
Ø  Staff knows the job, does not  work
Ø  Staff does not know the job, eager to work.
Ø  Does not know the job, does not work
Ø  Delegation, developing knowledge & skills, motivation, required

Restaurant staff Grooming
Points--- hair should be cut close
The uniform should be spotless and well ironed
Nails should be well cut and hands absolutely clean because we are food handlers
There should be no body odour or smell of cheap perfumes
Shoes should be well polished and of conservative style

Ø  One should be well shaved and moustache well trimmed
Ø  There should be no bad breathe
Ø  WAITRESS-Apron and hair band should be cleaned,
Ø  Black shoes with sturdy heels are advisable.
Ø  Stockings should be clean, jewellery to be avoided. Strong perfume not allowed

Attributes of a steward
Ø  The hotel & the restaurant business is an admixture of showmanship diplomacy and sociability
Ø  All  frontline personnel are required  to communicate effectively with certain manners and etiquettes with a touch of gentleness

 A Menu is a list of selected items provided by the Restaurant, based on the consumer demand .the rates of the dishes are mentioned on the menu. It was originated by Duke of Brunswick in year 1541.


A LA CARTE –means from the card

TDH =table d’ hote’ = from the table of the host*
* Food & Beverage items are  priced separately.
*The guest chooses from appetizers, main courses, and desserts.
*Dishes are priced individually
*Portions are large
*Takes time to prepare the dish because it is prepared after taking the order
*Layout of the table is minimum as the order is not known
List of a complete meal (3 to 8 course) for one price
*This menu can be called “fixed price” or “meal package”.
*It takes little time to prepare the dish as the order is known
*Portions are small
*Layout is done in advance as menu is known before hand

COMBINATION MENU some restaurants offer  Indian, Chinese, Continental food so there is a combined menu.
CHILDREN MENU--The keep children busy, the menu has drawings that the kids can color. food has small portions, no chilies.
SENIOR CITIZEN  MENU- Food is Soft, simple, very light and tasty; with less Fat and salt, low sugar.
CYCLIC MENU- This  menu is worked out for long staying guests since we cannot repeat the dishes every day so a menu is worked out on day to day basis i.e.- from Sunday to Monday .These sort of menus are also there in hostels.
FESTIVAL/SPECIAL OCCASION MENU--Special Occasion Menus: Regional festivals, Christmas, Diwali, New Year Eve, Birthdays, Holi. Parties. Menus can elaborated and usually very profitable.



1.          HORS D OEUVRE-  appetizer- shrimp cocktail, smoked salmon, salad Hawaiian
2.          POTAGE --  SOUP –ex, Consommé, mushroom soup, minestrone
3.          POISSON--  FISH –ex,Herring, skate, plaice, cod, prawns
4.          ENTRÉE—   ENTRY of meat course-  ex. Scotch eggs, kidneys, liver, pasta
5.          RELEVE—  MAIN COURSE ,Ou piece de resistance ex,Chicken a la Kiev, beef steak
6.          SORBET--   SHERBETS & CIGARS– Flavored fruit juice, pulps, liqueurs with iced  water, cigars                                                                                                                                                                
7.          ROTI—        ROAST –Turkey, goose, partridge, pheasant.
8.          LEGUME—  VEGETABLES course –mushrooms, artichoke,asparagus.carrots                                                      
9.          ENTREMET- SWEET course—Cream caramel, apple struddle, ice creams
10.      BONNE BOUCHE—Cheese/ savory –Cheddar, stilton, Derby
11.      DESSERT---               Fruits-dry walnut,cashewnuts, almonds, hard fruits like pears,                                                mangoes, apples and                         soft fruits like banana, papaya ,grapes
12.      THE/CAFÉ—Tea or coffee


White wine should be served with white meats.
 Red wines should be served with red meats.
Appetizer wines are served with soups and appetizers.
 Dessert wine /fortified wine are served with fruits & sweets.
Dry wines are served throughout the meal.
 Champagne should be served throughout the meal with any dish but mostly it is preferred with sweets and fruits.
Ø   White wines served before red wines.
Ø   Lobster, shellfish  -- Chablis, any dry white wine
Ø   Soups   -- Dry sherry, German white wine.
Ø   Fish      -- Dry white Bordeaux, German white
Ø   Hors d’oeuvre -- Rose wines or German white.
Ø   Entrees -- Clarets, Rose’ or light white wines
Ø   White meat or poultry -- White Bordeaux or burgundies.
Ø   Red meats & game --Full-bodied Bordeaux, burgundies of Rhone
Ø   Cheese -- Full bodied Red wines.
Ø   Sweets -- Sweet wines or dessert wines like Hock,  Mosel, Sauterne etc.
Ø   Fruits -- Hock, Mosel, Sauterne, Madeira,  Port etc.


BREAKFAST(timing =6 am to 11 am) is the first meal of the day. The word derives from the idea of breaking the fast of sleep
INDIAN BREAKFAST-, Parantha with dahi, Idlis, Puri bhaji, Vada sambhar, Chila,
 Juice, butter milk, yoghurt. Paranthas are of many types like –plain, aloo, gobhi, paneer and so on. Little Poha are also common--
JAM is made of fruits and sugar it is served with breakfast.  Toast, croissant, muffins, Danish pastry, broiche etc
MARMALADE is made of oranges, sugar; jest of orange is also added. served with breakfast
BUTTER is made of milk, can be in different tastes of garlic, black pepper, 
CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST-Originated in Europe. It is a light meal as the Europeans normally have a heavy mid-day lunch
1-Choice of chilled juice -like orange, pineapple, Tomato,Mango,Grape fruit,       Sweet lime (Tomato juice is always with lemon wedge, salt, pepper and Worcestershire sauce, Tabasco )                                 
2-Choice of  bread -Toast ,croissant,muffins,danish pastry,broiche, doughnuts
3- Preserves -Butter, jam, marmalade, honey
4-Tea or coffee, hot chocolate, horlicks etc
* Continental breakfast with coffee is called café complete, with tea is called complete
COVER- AP knife, fork, side plate with side knife, tea cup saucer with tea spoon, sugar sachet, sugar free in sugar bowl.
BAKER’S BASKET- assorted breakfast rolls served in a basket.
1, Choice of chilled juices-Orange, Tomato, Mango, Sweet lime, Grapefruit
2, Choice of fresh fruits- papaya, melon, apples, banana
3, Choice of cereals- like corn flakes, oatmeal, porridge, with cold milk or hot milk separately
4,Choice of  eggs to order like omelets, fried eggs ,poached eggs, scrambled  eggs with ham,    bacon ,sausages,
5, Choice of bread – toast, croissant, muffins, Danish pastry, doughnuts, brown bread served in bread basket
6, Butter, jam, marmalade, honey
7, Tea/coffee/hot chocolate
 COVER- AP knife, fork, dessert spoon, side plate with side knife, tea cup saucer with tea spoon, sugar sachet, sugar free in sugar bowl.
ENGLISH BREAK FAST - is heavy and is a major meal of the day. It has six or seven courses
1-Choice of chilled juices- pine apple , orange, tomato, mango, sweet lime
2-Stewed fruits-apples, prunes, figs, pears, stewed in sugar syrup cinnamon and cloves.
3-Cereals- oatmeal, cornflakes, porridge, rice   crispies, with hot or cold milk and castor sugar.
4-Fish-herring, haddock, sardines, kedges
5-Eggs to order-  various types of omelets, fried eggs, poached eggs, scrambled eggs, boiled.
6-Meat- grilled ham, bacon, sausages
7-Choice of bread- toast, croissant, muffins, Danish pastry, brioche, doughnuts, French bread,       brown bread or assorted few of these
8-Butter & preserves- jam, marmalade, honey
9-Fresh fruits- diced melon, papaya, oranges, bananas
10-Tea /coffee/ bourn vita  /hot chocolate
 BRUNCH – between 10:00am and 1:00pm
 that breakfast and lunch
The term is a mix of breakfast and lunch. Served before an event like marriage etc
Brunch is also arranged for guests busy with early morning sight seeing
         It comprises of juices, cereal, ,egg preparation, cutlets, fried fish,   buttered Rice , vegetable ,quiche, large roasts of meat or poultry, cold seafood like shrimp and smoked fish, salads, soups and some desserts like pastries, soufflés , ice creams  and  tea  coffee.

 LUNCH     (SERVED BETWEEN -12.30 TO 3.00 PM
Lunch is usually not heavy,
 Lunch is also delayed due to work exigencies. Working lunch is also provided during meetings and conferences
When guests go for sightseeing they carry pack lunches in boxes.
Most of the hotels have standard pack lunch comprising of grilled chicken, muffins, boiled eggs fruits & juice in tetra pack and for vegetarians it is vegetable cutlet ,vegetable sandwich.

High Tea (also known as Meat Tea is an early evening meal, typically eaten between 5 and 6 o'clock in the evening. It can be eaten instead of  dinner
The term comes from the meal being eaten at the ‘high’ (main) table,.
It would usually consist of cold meats, eggs and/or fish, cakes and sandwiches,tea/coffee. In a family, it is less formal.
The term "supper" usually refers to  light EVENING meal. It is not very common meal. "Supper" is a less formal meal.  fish and chips. Sausage, Toast or cereals, french fries. Apple pies,etc are eaten.

is the main meal of the day,The word "dinner" comes from the French word dîner, the "chief  repast of the day",
 It is a relaxed meal, eaten in the evening.  Meat, fish or vegetables, or starch products like rice, noodles, or potatoes.
A dinner in banquet can be gala dinner, or a theme dinner. A candle light dinner with a live band could be a good experience Most of the special occasions like “The special day’’ birthdays etc are celebrated with dinner
It is taken: around 11 am. Derived from word Las ounces means the eleven in Spanish
,In Australia and New Zealand, it is called morning tea or Smoko. In the Royal Australian Navy it is called mornos is a snack that is similar to afternoon tea, but eaten in the morning Consist of cake or biscuits, tarts, cheese straws, vegetable pie, apple pie, chicken pie, with a cup of tea or coffee.

1.2.3 Planning of staff requirement

Number of staff required depends on the number of buffet stations to be manned, number of dishes to be served, and for other activities, such as replenishing and clearance
Service supervisor Total staff required
Soup station                            2
Vegetarian counter                  2
Non-vegetarian counter          2
Replenishing                           2
Water                                      1
Clearance                                2
Sweet                                      one member from the replenishing and one member from the soup counter will do the service in the beginning. After sometime when almost 3/4th of the guests finish their food, the soup counter will be closed and joins the sweet service. Ice cream will be served by the representative from the supplier.
Service supervisor                   1
Total staff required                 12
The staff requirement is often fulfilled by the local agents.
The climate, the unpredictable element, may pose the problem during the outdoor function and the caterer should be able to manage any such situations.
The caterer must analyze the menu in detail and survey the function venue to organize the function to the satisfaction of the guests. If any of the items is forgotten, the caterer has to do the function without it which may result in guest dissatisfaction.

1.2.4 Shifts (Panzer, Straight, Split & Reliever)
The word shift generally refers to the work schedule at any establishment. There are various shift carried out in hotels .
Ø  Morning : Reporting time 6:30 am to 8:30am
Ø  Afternoon :  11:30 am to 1pm
Ø  Evening    3pm to 5 pm
Ø  Night    7pm to 9pm
Ø  Graveyard   11:30 pm to 2:30 pm
Ø  Split / Break  As per requirement and outlet
Ø  Straight  continuous Shift time
Ø  Flexible  depends on outlet
Ø  Panzer (German word Panzer refers to any kind of armour). When the hotel supposed to be extremely busy, ..ie.. 31st Dec. & 1st Jan.
Ø  Reliever  TO provide relaxation time to busy shift

Ø  Restaurant operating equipments refers to those implements and instruments which form the basis of service, presentation, facilitation and ease of consumption by the customer and the service providers.
Ø  These equipments are normally classified on the basis of their size, usage and material used.

Ø  Rates should be reasonable
Ø  Availability in the market, on  second  purchase the same variety should be available in the market
Ø  Concept of the restaurant, whether the restaurant is a coffee shop or Peshawari , French, Indian etc it should also match the décor and the ambience
Ø  Durability of the product ,product should be long lasting
Ø  Maintenance-any product should be maintained and repairable.
Ø  Type of Customer ,whether they are students , executives or foreigners

Ø  Crockery- refers to small equipments meant for serving and consuming food in
Ø  Flatware/ Cutlery- refers to implements for holding, serving, cutting and consuming food with
Ø  Glassware- refers to all vessels made of glass and used for serving beverages in
Ø  Hollowware- all other metallic hollow equipments used to hold and help in food and beverage service

Ø  Ease of the operation.
Ø  Luxury
Ø  Guest’s comfort & Delight
Ø  Save time
Ø  Saving manpower
Ø  Streamlining operation
Ø  Future action/plan
Ø  Increase in profitability
F & B Service linen
A  F & B Service Linen can be defined as finely woven material made from linen fabrics (the fibres of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum) which are durable. Nowadays table linen can be made from both natural and synthetic fabrics. F & B Service  linen includes table cloths, place mat, table runner and table napkins etc..

Ø  Tablecloths
137cm X 137cm (54in X 54in) to fit a 76cm square or  1m round table
183cm X 183cm (72in X 72in) to fit a 1m square table
183cm X 244cm (72in X 96in) to fit rectangular table
Ø  Slip-cloths
     1m X 1m (3ft X 3ft) used to cover a grubby tablecloth
Ø  Serviette / Napkins
    46-50 cm (18-20in) square if linen
Ø  Buffet cloths
    2m X 4m (6ft X 12ft). This is the minimum size.
Ø  Waiters cloth or Service cloth
Ø  Glass cloth / Wiping Cloth
Ø  Tea & Cocktail napkins
Ø  Salver & Tray mats
Ø  Placemats
Table linen includes table cloths, place mat, table runner and table napkins. They are called table linen & mostly made from linen fabrics which are durable. Disposables products only intended for single use (ex. Disposable plates/ lunch boxes/paper bags etc ).

1.2           Elements of cost

Based on the behavior-

Based on the identity-

Based on functions-

Based on association with product-

Based on controllability-
Based on time-

1.3.1 Types of cost (Material, Labour & Overhead)

Material cost include in your calculation quality, quantity, time of preparation, packaging and demands for certain menu items.

Labour cost includes the expenditure being incurred on man-power.

OVERHEADS COST includes expenditure on transportation, storage, power, fuel etc.

1.3.2 Cost Groups (Fixed, semi-fixed & variable) & types of
profit (gross & net)

Fixed Cost : There are certain category that demands fixed expenditure like staff salary, house/vehicle rent, loan installment etc.

Semi- Fixed : There are certain category that shows very little variation in cost like electricity bills, packaged raw materials like cleaning agents etc.

Variable cost : The cost that varies from time to time like the cost of raw material for cooking, decoration etc.
1.3.3 Breakeven / Cost volume profit analysis
Ø  When a business makes neither profit nor loss it is called as a break-even point
Ø  An amount where all costs are exactly covered by revenue with neither profit nor loss is defined as a break-even point       (B E P) in accounting analysis
Ø  It is very important to understand and examine the relationship between cost, sales & profit of a product
Ø  A good cost to sales relationship for variable costs does not mean profit in operation
Ø  A high cost % might result insufficient additional customers to provide a substantial profit

Classification of costs:
      Fixed cost
      Variable cost
      Semi variable cost
Fixed cost:
      Are those which does not respond top change in volume if sales. Most of expenses in hotel are of fixed nature
      The % of fixed cost in case of F & B operation are lower; eg. rent, interest, management salaries, administration expenses
Variable cost:
      Are those that vary in proportion to sales volume
      F & B costs are the best of variable cost
      When the volumes of business increases by say 15 % there is a 15 % increase in F & B costs & vice versa
Semi variable costs:
      Are those that move in the same direction, but not quite in proportion to the volume of sales
      These costs are mixture of fully fixed & fully variable costs eg. costs of telephone, heating cost, labour costs in seasonal hotel
Ø  Break-even point is a tool, which an operation can use to utilize in its business.        
Ø  It tells when the business starts to earn profit based on business estimated sales.             
Ø  It also shows the declining trend in a business so that the management can watch the cost and reduce the cost when ever possible.
Ø  The purpose of F & B control is to keep the actual cost in line with the standard cost with out diminishing either the quality or quantity
Ø  This in turn assures the highest possible gross profit for the operations
Ø  On the basis of the profit object of the hotel, departmental profit target of the F & B dept. are established
Ø  Food facilities, the type of customer, food quality standard, comfort & atmosphere etc. need to be identified
Ø  To be a profit oriented operation the total % should never exceed 100 %
Ø  This could be expressed as
Ø  Sales = variable cost + Fixed cost + profit
Ø  Sales = cost of sales + cost of labour + cost of overhead +/- profit / loss

INTRODUCTION --The banqueting department is a part of the food and beverage department
Ø  The word banquets has possibly come from the word ‘Banc’ which means bench
Ø  Banquet signifies a sumptuous or grand meal given to a large number of guests on a festival or a ceremonious occasions
Ø  The banqueting era began when large gatherings at the table became possible
ORIGIN---The origin of banqueting goes to per-historic times
Ø  Banquets in the Middle Ages were  for extraordinary number of people and vast quantities of food served
Ø  The long 12 course menus have now been reduced to simple 4 to 5 course menus
Ø  In most hotels banquets is the highest revenue earning outlet of the F&B department
Ø  A banquet is a department that holds and organizes various parties and meetings
Ø  Within the hotel premises & outdoors as well

Duties of A Banquet manager =Preparing a function sheet (FUNCTION PROSPECTUS)
      F p is distributed 72 hours in advance. The  FP has three copies  one is filed in f & b office ,second goes to accounts third goes to chef,
      Around  10  to 12  photo copies are taken out  and distributed in  all departments  as under-
      Front office- for preparing  signage
      H r manager– for arranging staff on hire basis if required, security, in and out gate pass.
      Housekeeping- for  providing  linen  and uniform for casual staff, cleaning of banquet hall
      Engineering- for providing audio visuals, check for heat , light power  etc, safety
Ø  Distributing them to the kitchen, H.K, F.O and other concerned departments
Ø  Requisitioning the required staff
Ø  Instructing them of the work expectations of the function
Ø  Supervising the laying for the function as well as other extra arrangements
Ø  Co-ordinating with all other departments which are involved with the function
Ø  Meeting with clients and hosts
Ø  Determine the requirements as well as last minute arrangements if necessary

Duties of A Banquet Captain=Ensuring an efficient standard of function service
Ø  Co-ordinating service between the waiter and the guest
Ø  Setting up the correct layout according to functions requirements
Ø  Assisting the waiter if and when necessary for the  efficient running of the functions

Duties of a steward=Ensuring the mis-en-place of tables and covers are complete
Ø  Should be familiar with banquets, function menus and necessary mis-en-place
Ø  Maintaining a good working relationship with other departments
Ø  Serving at the functions in an efficient and responsible manner
Leaving the function room clean and tidy at the end of the service

Ø  Banquet arranges private parties, marriages, seminars, conferences & delegations
Ø  Banquets are basically of three types –
Informal –no set plan of seating is followed here, service indiscriminate of rank or sex;
Semi Formal-The top table is allotted to the senior most guests according to their ranks-The rest of the guest are dispersed without discrimination
FORMAL BANQUETS --A table plan is printed behind the menu card
Ø  A number may be allocated to the guests who can be guided to their seats accordingly
Ø  A card bearing the name of the guest is placed on the cover for their convenience
Ø  Lights are used for signaling-
Ø  Red lights  means  stewards  have to stay in pantry,
Ø  Amber lights means dining room is ready
Staffing in formal banquets
Ø  Number of people at top table service
Ø  Number of courses
Ø  How many covers one steward is serving
Ø  How many wine stewards are  allocated
Ø  The toast master announces the toast of the champagne
Ø  A master of ceremony controls the activities in the hall
Ø  As the name suggests the type of atmosphere at such banquets is very formal
Ø  There has to be very high standards of service at these types of banquets
Ø  The guest will either be seated on round tables placed in a symmetrical fashion
Ø  Or on a table placed in an E, T, V, or U shape
Ø  The host or top level delegates  are seated at the head table
Ø  The minimum space required for one person is 15 sq feet
Ø  On the table a space of 2 to 3 feet, generally 8 persons are attended by one waiter
Ø  Dress regulations are strictly followed
Ø  In informal ,one waiter will serve approximately 16 to 20 people
The service of a toast master is very rarely needed
2.4 Banquet Sales
This mainly deals with – 
Ø  Inquiries of the various halls, dates and rates.
Ø  Reservations and cancellations of the functions.
Ø  Finalizing the details.
Ø  Follow ups of the bookings.
Ø  Filling the correspondence

2.5 Banquet reservation diary.
Ø  Has pages with date and days
Ø  Each date has the name of the halls & other banquet outlets
Ø  Write  time, minimum guarantee, to maximum, advance, date of booking
Ø  Guest has to sign in the space provided & mention the address & phone number
Ø  The Function prospectus is made by the Banquet Maitre d'hôtel
Ø  Distributed to Chef, Accounts, copies are given to all related departments

Booking  procedure
Ø  To see if the venue (hall/garden etc.) is available or not on that particular date time
Ø  Type of function, conference, marriage, party, event etc.
Ø  Type of set up required is suiting to the venue
Ø  Confirmation of party by 50 %  advance payment or as per policy
Ø  Working out a menu with guest, & circulation of FP, 72 hours before the party
Ø  The guest/host  agrees to the terms & conditions & signs the Function prospectus

2.6 Function contract & Function prospect

The Contract generally contains important points that me considered as an agreement between hotel and guest.
·         A 15% gratuity and a 5.1% sales tax shall be added to all food and liquor sales.
·          The person signing the contract shall be financially responsible for all remaining charges the day of the event.
·          No dates shall be reserved without a deposit  of minimum guarantee
·          As host, you are responsible for the behavior and actions of your guests.
·          Any damage caused by a guest will be the host’s financial responsibility.
·          The bartenders, at their discretion, have the right to refuse service to anyone.
·          All bar arrangements must be made with prior consent.
·          No bottle goods or food may be brought in.
·          We are not responsible for lost or stolen articles.
·          All events are served with paper products and disposables.
·          China and silverware are available at $2.00 per person extra.
·          No food shall be prepared without a deposit.
·          Balance is due on the day of the event.
·          The number of guests quoted must be confirmed 7 days prior to the event.
·          If more people are served than quoted, it shall be added to the bill.
·          If an event is cancelled, no deposit will be refunded. Clients
Signature______________________________________ Date_____________________________ Catering MGR_________________________________________Date_____________________________

Day -------                                                                                                                    Date -----                            
         Time  -----       Venue ----------          
          Advance -------- receipt no----
         Number of minimum pax-----
          Number of maximum pax----
          Rate -----------------------------
         Type of function, ---------------
         Food pick up time --------------
         MENU ITEMS                    DRINKS----
         Main course
         -----------                                                                              SEATING PLAN       
         KITCHEN ------------  
         ACCOUNTS ----------
         ENGINEERING—   mike
         HR OFFICE-------------
         FRONT OFFICE---------
                                                                                                                 SIGN OF GUEST----------------
                                                                                                                DATE-, MOB NO----------------

2.7 Banquet Menus

Banquet menus list food selections for banquets, which are festive dinners that celebrate special occasions. Typically, banquets serve a single type of appetizer and dessert and allow guests to select their choice of main course.
Banquet menus help guests make an informed decision on what to eat at a banquet. They give details about the dishes, such as ingredients, sauces and flavorings.
Banquet menus are typically small and consist of only a few pages. This is due to the limited dinner selections found at most banquets.
Banquet menus often feature fine dining, including expensive dishes such as filet mignon, lobster and stuffed chicken. They typically do not list prices, as guests usually buy banquet tickets that include the cost of dinner.

2.8 Types of service in the banquets.
Planning a banquet requires you to make decisions concerning the arrangements for the event. In addition to deciding what foods and beverages the attendees of your banquet will eat and drink, you must also decide how they will receive that food. Each type of banquet service has its own benefits and considerations.
With sit-down service, your banquet guests receive their food at their seats. Typically, you offer a choice of entrees, such as a beef, chicken, fish or vegetarian dinner and have attendees make selections ahead of time.
This requires extra work in the planning stages of the event as you will need to keep track of not only who is attending, but who has made dinner selections and what those dinner selections were. Banquet hosts often opt for sit-down service despite the added planning because it is generally considered the most elegant of service types, explains Peggy Post in the "Emily Post's Wedding Planner." Sit-down service is generally the most expensive type of banquet dining.
A long line of hot and cold foods placed along one or more tables is the main characteristic of buffet service. Guests form one or two lines and walk alongside the buffet table, choosing what food they wish to eat. Some buffets have waitstaff explain what each dish is and serve portions directly onto guests' plates. Other buffets are strictly self-serve or combine self-service with a few staff-served choices, such as carved beef or turkey.
Buffet service is generally regarded as less elegant than seated service since guests are required to at least go and get their meals on their own, according to "Emily Post's Wedding Planner." The cost is typically lower for a buffet meal, however, and it often allows for a greater number of meal choices for picky attendees. No advance planning is required for a buffet service beyond selecting the items to be served and providing the banquet facility with a final number of guests.
Station service is a modified form of buffet service, and typically costs somewhere between the price of a buffet and a sit-down meal. At a station service banquet, small tables are set up around the banquet room. Each station features a different kind of food and is typically staffed by a banquet server who keeps the food replenished and, in some cases, prepares or serves it. Stations may include an omelet station at a breakfast banquet, a sushi bar or a table filled with cheeses and charcuterie.
Station service encourages guests to move about the room and mingle with other attendees, while still having tables available for guests to return to and enjoy their meals during a scheduled dinner hour. Like buffet service, stations require minimal planning, but because they are less common than other types of banquets, often maintain a more elegant feel than a traditional buffet, reports "Emily Post's Wedding Planner."
Passed-tray service typically occurs in lieu of a traditional meal. With this type of service, the wait staff circulates through the banquet room with finger foods on large platters. The servers approach guests and offer food and a napkin. The service typically operates continuously for a block of time, and a full meal may not be served.
Passed-tray service encourages conversation and is typically considered more elegant than a buffet, according to "Emily Post's Wedding Planner." The cost of a passed-tray event varies based upon the types of foods you select and how long you wish for the service to continue and may or may not be more expensive than a buffet. Some guests expect to eat a meal at a banquet, however, and may feel disappointed if only passed-trays are offered.
2.9 Staffing & Duty allocation
A work shift  or duty Chart shows the typical workload for employees in hotels, There work shifts may vary with  hotel occupancy and peak business days. This also ensures that the staff has sufficient time to note their working schedule for the following week / month. Common work shifts in the hotel are:
  • Morning       0700hrs to 1500hrs
  • Evening       1500hrs to 2300hrs
  • Night           2300hrs to 0700hrs   
  • General        0900hrs to 1800hrs
  • Break Shift  0700hrs to 1200hrs and 1800hrs to 2300hrs
 Duty Roster are usually prepared by the supervisors and then authorized by the HOD / Manager of the department.  Approved Duty rosters are then placed on the notice board on each department. Staffs are not allowed to make any changes on the duty rosters, if any changes required then the same has to be approved by the HOD / Manager.
2.10 Toast procedure at wedding reception & Protocol
The most usual toast, given after dinner (and the second grace, if said), is the loyal toast to the Sovereign. To obtain the necessary silence the toastmaster may say, without preamble, ‘Pray silence for your president/host/chairman’ etc. The principal host will then stand and give the toast. The variations are as follows:
– The first and principal loyal toast, as approved by The Queen, is ‘The Queen’. It is incorrect to use such forms as ‘I give you the loyal toast of Her Majesty The Queen’.
– The second loyal toast, which, if given, immediately follows the first, is ‘The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince of Wales, and the other members of the Royal Family’.
Everybody else then stands up and the entire National Anthem may then be played (just the first six bars are played after a second loyal toast). When the music ends, glasses are raised and the toast is said – ‘The Queen’ – and drunk before everybody sits down again. Glasses should never be raised during the National Anthem.
A speaker proposing a toast (other than the loyal toast) should make this clear at the end of the speech in some such form as ‘I give you the toast of ……’, or ‘I ask you to rise and drink to the toast of ……’. This obviates any need for the toastmaster to say ‘The toast is ……’. The toastmaster should be given the form in which he is to make all announcements in writing.

2.11 Outdoor catering.
Outdoor catering includes the provision of food and drink away from home base and suppliers. The venue is decided by the host. Price will be charged according to the type of food and beverage ordered. Outdoor catering will take care of party in a full-fledged manner. Outdoor catering includes catering for functions such as marriages, parties etc.

The venue is decided by the host. Price will be charged according to the type of food and beverage ordered. Outdoor catering will take care of party in a full-fledged manner. Outdoor catering includes catering for functions such as marriages, parties etc.

3.1 Buffet.
3.1.1 Definition & Types of buffets. (Meal period, manner
of consumption, food served & other types –Display, Gourmet & Running)
Ø  DEFINITION--Can be defined as a counter or a table where food is attractively exhibited from which guests can help themselves
Ø  Buffets are becoming very popular with all classes of people
Ø  Business man are in a hurry and so with a buffet displayed they can help themselves
Ø  Also unlike the traditional menu, the guest can see the food on display
Ø  Can make their own choice or selection
Ø  Many people nowadays get bored to see the same menu and are looking for something new

Theme buffets
Ø  Many of the managers try to have a kind of theme buffet on regular basis
Ø  Some of the theme’s that they could choose are:-
Ø  International theme- French, Mexican, Thai, etc
Ø  Seasonal theme – Winter buffet, Pool parties etc.
Ø  Based on Religious celebrations- Diwali, Christmas, Id. etc.
Ø  Special occasions- Fashion shows, sports events, weddings etc.
Ø  A year around buffet- weekly buffets on Saturday and Sundays

TYPES OF BUFFET--There are basically 5 different types of buffets-
Ø  Display buffet
Ø  Breakfast buffet
Ø  Full buffet (formal)
Ø  Fork buffet
Ø  Finger buffet
Ø  Some large restaurants set up a display in the centre of the restaurant
Ø  To catch the customers eye
Ø  These displays include an arrangement of flowers or fruits in season
DISPLAY BUFFET ----Or shellfish on ice or other delicacies
Ø  Sometimes an arrangement of cheese, wines and spirits are also included
Ø  Display buffet also give the chefs and the F&B staff a chance to display their creativity

Ø  Many international hotels offer in-house guests and other customers a breakfast buffet
Ø  With a wide selection of dishes
Ø  Hot beverages, are ordered to stewards
Ø  The selection available will vary from one hotel to another
Ø  Includes different type of  juices, breads, preserves, fruits, cereals, omelets, bacon, sausages
Ø  Omelets, pancakes, Indian items may be prepared at site

Ø  A full buffet is normally serves a main meal
Ø  For a full buffet tables and chairs are essential
Ø  Should be fully laid with all crockery, cutlery and glassware
Ø  Chef gets a chance to show his skills in decorating a dish
Ø  Simple but effective garnishing should be done
Ø  Service staff  is behind the buffet table to help the guests serve themselves
Ø  These types of buffet will include both hot and cold dishes

FORK BUFFET--Fork buffet is which can be eaten standing up with a plate in hand, and fork in the other
Ø  These events are ideally suitable when space does not permit tables and chairs for all.
Ø  As many  tables and chairs possible should be provided
Ø  Guest can keep their drinking glasses on them
Ø  A fork buffet table  looks just as attractive as a full buffet
Ø  Range of food cannot be as wide
Ø  Should not contain any item which is difficult  to cut with the fork only
Ø  Provide  napkins along with finger bowls if required

FINGER BUFFET ---Finger buffets are the least formal type of buffet
Ø  Guest  mingles with each other
Ø  A finger buffet can be for a main meal, but generally  it is only a snack meal
Ø  Normally served at that time of a day
Ø  Guests do not anticipate a substantial amount of food
Ø  Care must be taken that the food offered should  be eaten without cutlery
Ø  In this case too plenty of napkins should be available along with finger bowls if required
Ø  E.g. High tea’s and kiddies parties

3.1.2 Points to be considered while planning a buffet.
Ø  Check for number of people expected, also check the no. of vegetarian or non-vegetarian
Ø  Check the type of buffet required
Ø  Keep in mind the availability of certain food items
Ø  Make sure that the food is easy to cook in bulk and is easy to portion out
Ø  See for difference in colours textures & main ingredient is not repeated
Ø  Try to suggest menus that have already been suggested
Ø  Or chosen by other parties taking place on the same day
Ø  If the menu is written in any language other than English
Ø  A brief explanation should be given to explain the item
Ø  Check the function prospectus for the menu, number of pax
Ø  Type of function and the price being paid.
Ø  Check to see if all the outlets have been given the function prospectus
Ø  List all the items to be served ad the particular dishes or platter
Ø  Hand it over to the kitchen if required (bowl, platters, food pans etc)
Ø  Set up a schedule for food preparation
3.1.3 Buffet equipment

Table Settings
Ø  Dinner plates
Ø  Bread plates
Ø  Salad plates
Ø  Water glasses
Ø  Wine glasses
Ø  Coffee cups with saucer
Ø  Silverware settings
Ø  Linen or paper napkins
Ø  Tablecloths
Ø  Table centerpieces
Ø  Salt and pepper shakers
Ø  Sugar holders
Ø  Butter holders

Serving Equipment
Ø  Serving trays
Ø  Bus tubs
Ø  Water pitchers

Buffet Equipment
Ø  Plates
Ø  Silverware rolls
Ø  Bread Basket
Ø  Chaffing Dishes
Ø  Fuel cells for chaffing dishes
Ø  Lighter or matches for fuel cells
Ø  Tongs
Ø  Serving spoons
Ø  Spatulas
Ø  Cutting board (for beefs, hams, turkey)
Ø  Sharp knife for cutting
Ø  Rags (for spills)
Ø  Decorations (seasonal flowers, ect.)

Coffee/Beverage Station
Ø  Air-pots for coffee, decaf and hot water
Ø  Water pitchers
Ø  Iced tubs for soda, juice and other cold drinks
Ø  Drinking straws
Ø  Drink stirrers
Ø  Cocktail napkins
Ø  Coffee cups
Ø  Water glasses
Ø  Basket of assorted teas and or hot cocoa
Ø  Basket of sugar packets
Ø  Small wastebasket
Additional Items for Off-Premise Catering

Ø  Cambro- An insulated container that keeps food hot or cold
Ø  Garbage bags for dirty linen
Ø  Extra bus tubs for dirty dishes
Ø  Disposable containers for food storage (if you are keeping it or the customer intend to keep leftovers).
Ø  Plastic wrap
Ø  Tin foil
Ø  Extra serving utensils
Ø  Jugs of water- if no running water is available at the site
Ø  Hand sanitizer
Ø  Extra cleaning rags or paper towels
Ø  Directions to the location (don’t forget this one!)

Catering is a great way to try out the restaurant business without a huge investment. For those who already own a restaurant, catering services offer a great way to boost sales and expand its customer base. 


Formal banqueting
– In this all degrees of formalities and protocols are maintained and therefore elaborate arrangements are required to be made. Normally formal banquets are witnessed in case of Head of states hosting function in honor of visiting dignitaries. These elaborate arrangements are in advance and everything is preplanned to the last details. Elaborate seating arrangements are made with predetermined and marked seat numbers. Seating plans may be given in advance to the guest along with the menu or may be send with the invitation. The actual plan is as per the ranking and during the final show one may find tent cards mentioning names of the guest placed in the particular seating position.
 Informal banqueting 
In this no set plan of seating is followed. Apart from this no formality is expected from the guest side in terms of maintaining the protocols. The best examples are the marriage parties, birthday bash, launch parties etc.
 Semi-formal banqueting 
– In this a part of the function is formal whereas the rest can be informal in its own sense. For example in a company board meeting the top table can be arranged maintaining the protocols and ranking whereas the rest of the table could be at ease with no such arrangement

Make a service layout and nail it unto the notice board
Ø  Discuss with the chef the buffet layout, along with the number of counters
Ø  Make sure that chafing dishes  have been cleaned and washed
Ø  Layout the ladles along with under liners
Ø  Keep the fuel tins ready
Ø  Place  under liners under them
Ø  Neatly write out the buffet tags or tent cards and place it at the respective place
Ø  Make sure that the frills are properly frilled and the table tops which are used are free of stains
Ø  When the food is ready to be picked up pour hot water into the water pans
Ø  Water not too little or too much
Ø  Light the fuel tins
Ø  Food has been picked up and placed at their respective places
Ø  Keep Buffet top and the chafing dishes spotlessly clean
Ø  Clear the ladles and the under liners and replace them with new ones whenever it gets dirty
Ø  Make sure that the fuel is kept burning throughout the meal
Ø  Temperature of  hot food should always be above 65ºC and cold food below 5º C
Ø  Put off the fuel before removing the food pans
Ø  Once the guests have left remove the frills, satin and other table tops
Ø  Fold them neatly and keep it at one side
Ø  Do not remove the frills while the guests
3.1.5 Meeting room setups: (U Shape, Hollow Square,
Classroom Theatre, Board of Directors, ‘T’ Shape)
3.2 Food and Beverage Management in various catering
Railway catering
Ø  Called as dining car (American English) or restaurant car (British English), also diner
Ø  Is a railroad passenger car that serves meals on a train
Ø  Provides full-service, sit-down restaurant
Ø  Dining cars offer a unique form of visual entertainment
Ø  Namely the ever-changing views of the world outside
LUXURY ON WHEELS--History --Rail passenger's had few options for meal
Ø  The roadhouses often located near the railroad's water stops
Ø  They served rancid meat, cold beans, and week-old coffee
Ø  Such poor conditions understandably discouraged many travelers
Ø  This led to the development of catering at stations
Pantry Car --Nowadays most of the trains have a pantry
Ø  The meals are cooked in the pantry and served to the passengers
Ø  Some trains pick up the meals from  identified stations
Ø  Railway stations also have railway canteens & kiosks
Ø  Some railways give catering contract to private caterers
Ø  As competition among the railroads intensified, dining car service was taken to new levels
Ø  When the Santa Fe rolled out its new "Pleasure Dome"-Lounge cars in 1951, the railroad introduced the travelling public to the Turquoise Room, promoted as "The only private dining room in the world on rails
Ø  The room accommodated 12 guests, and could be reserved anytime for private dinner or cocktail parties, or other special functions
Ø  The room was often used by the era's celebrities and dignitaries while traveling on the Super Chief
AIRLINES CATERING --- Breakfast --Food is being delivered to a Airplane -----Choice of canned juices
Ø  Entrée of pancakes or eggs, and
Ø  There are muffins or pastry, fruits and breakfast cereal on the side
Ø  Baked beans, sometimes the unconventional are also served
Ø  Coffee and tea are offered as well, and sometimes hot chocolate
The average airline dinner---Includes meat (most commonly chicken or beef), a salad or vegetable, a small roll, and a         dessert
Ø  Caterers usually produce alternative meals, e.g. kosher, halal and vegetarian
Ø  These must usually be ordered in advance
Ø  Some airlines do not offer a specific meal for ovo-lacto vegetarians
Ø  Instead, they are given a vegan meal
Air lines Cultural diet
Ø  Cultural diet, such as Chinese, French, Japanese, Indian or Italian style
Ø  Infant and baby meals
Ø  Medical diet which varies from low/high fibre, low fat/cholesterol, diabetic low salt / sodium
Ø  low-calorie, low-protein, bland to gluten-free
Ø  Religious diet, such as Hindu, Muslim or Buddhist diet, Asian vegetarian
Air lines Service equipments
Ø  Plastic  trays, cutlery, glasses as they are light weight
Ø  Condiments (typically salt, pepper and sugar) are supplied in small sachets
Ø  For sanitation, most meals include a napkin and a wet wipe (also called a moist towellete), often moistened with scented water
Ø  Packing is done in light casserole dishes
Ø  Food safety is of prime importance
Ø  Providing food services to remote sites
Ø  The various types of catering include mobile catering, event catering, industrial catering and airline catering
Ø  Mobile catering - food is served directly from a vehicle or cart designed for the purpose
Ø  Mobile catering is common at outdoor
Ø  Such as events, concerts, workplaces, and downtown business districts
Popularity of outdoor catering ---There is an increase in the number of parties and social gatherings
Ø  Event catering has gained much popularity
Ø  In this type of catering food is served with wait staff at dining tables
Ø  By setting up a self-serve buffet. The food may be prepared on site or transported
Ø  Depends on the menu and facilities at the site The event caterer staff is responsible not only for preparing the food
Ø  But also setting up the dining area and waiting tables
OUTDOOR CATERING VAN ---Conventions, and weddings
Ø  This service is typically provided at banquets conventions, and weddings
Ø  All the attendees  are provided with food and drinks
Ø  Some staff is on regular rolls some are on casual basis
Ø  An FP is made 24 hours before the function
Ø  An agreement is signed between party & the caterer for terms & conditions
INDUSTRIAL CATERING---Caters to the employees at subsidized rates; in this system there a token or coupon
Ø  Self service or cafeteria style of service is provided, food is in bain-marie
Ø  Industrial catering is another field of catering
Ø  Has gained prominence in recent times
Ø  It consists of providing food in  industrial canteens, factories etc.
Ø  Menu is written for every meal on board
Ø  Sanitation hygiene are of prime importance
TAKE AWAY-Take-out (in North American English), carry-out (English, take-away (in Australian English)
Ø  The restaurant may or may not provide table service
Ø  In some cases there are facilities for customers to order food by telephone, fax, or over the Internet
Ø  Food has to be collected or delivered
Ø  This trend is thought to be on the rise as many small businesses take to the web to promote their take-outs
Ø  Take-out food is often fast food, but not always so


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