ACCOMMODATION OPERATION UNIT III

CLEANING EQUIPMENTS
To keep the hotel clean and hygienic, various equipments and supplies are used. No work can be done without proper equipment. It is important that the housekeeper makes a careful
selection of equipment based on necessity and suitability for use in a hotel industry, appropriate design and required size, rugged construction and finish, ease and availability of maintenance, low initial and operating costs, on-the-job tested performance, safety, and overall efficiency. Supplies should also be studied, and basic procedures developed to use these supplies most effectively in maintaining desired standards of cleanliness. Housekeeping property is broadly classified as either equipment or supplies. Items classified as supplies are consumables, and equipment is reusable. Thus, floor machines, brooms, mops, vacuum machines, etc, are categorized as equipment, whereas cleaning agents are supplies. There are mainly two types of cleaning equipments, viz.
(i)                 Manual cleaning equipments and
(ii)               Mechanical cleaning equipments.
MANUAL CLEANING EQUIPMENTS 
      1)      Brushes
      2)       Mops
a.      Dry mop, dust mop
b.      Wet mop, moist mop
c.       Mop for pre moistening
d.      Pre moistening
e.       Yarn mop
f.       Hot mop
       3)      BROOM
       4)      MELAMINE FOAM
      5)      SQUEEGEES
       6)      CLOTHS
a.      Floor cloths
b.      Wipes and swabs
c.       Scrim
d.      Rags / disposable cloths
e.       Dust sheets
f.       Drugget
g.      Hearth and bucket cloths
 h.      Chamois leather
       7)      CARPET SWEEPER
       8)      SPRAY BOTTLE

      1)      BRUSHES
The brushes are devices with bristles, wire or other filaments, used for cleaning. Brushes used for cleaning come in various sizes, such as very small brushes for cleaning a fine instrument, toothbrushes, the household version that usually comes with a dustpan, or the broomstick. Hall brooms are even larger and are used for cleaning large areas. Cleaning brushes also include brushes for cleaning the toilet, washing glass, finishing tiles, and sanding doors.
There are mainly three types of brushes:
1.      Hard brush: have bristles that are stiff and well spaced. These are most suitable for removal of litter. Example: upholstery brush, carpet brush etc.
2.      Soft brush: have bristles that are flexible and set close together. They can be used to remove loose soil and litter. Example: tooth brush, feather brush, shoe brush, coat brush etc.
3.      Scrubbing brush: can be used to remove heavy soiling from small areas or by the use of mechanical scrubbing machines, if possible. Example: deck scrubber, club shaped / hockey stick shaped toilet brush, etc.
        2)      MOPS
A mop is a tool generally used for cleaning floors, although when possible it is also used for cleaning other surfaces, for example tiled walls, to avoid unhygienic working conditions. The following are the different types of mops
a.       Dry mop, dust mop
b.      Wet mop, moist mop
c.       Mop for pre moistening
d.      Pre moistening
e.       Yarn mop
f.       Hot mop

       A)    Dry mop, dust mop
A dry mop or dust mop is designed to pick up dry, loose contamination like dust, earth and sand from the floor surface. It consists of yarn and / or microfiber and is used as a first step inclining a floor. Dry mops can be similar to the yarn wet mop, but with wider eyes and shorter hairs than wet mops. Professional dry mops consists of a flat sheet of micro fiber textile or sheets with a surface of looped yarn, usually about 15 cm wide, and comes in variable lengths (usually 30 to 100 cm). The professional type is intended for fastening on long handle with a flat pad with the aid of Velcro or a pouch on the mop, in which the pad on the handle fits. The dry mop can in many instances replace abloom and has the ability to hold a limited amount of dust or sand within itself. Ideally, it should be machine washed when it becomes saturated with dust.
      B)    Wet mop, moist mop
A wet mop or moist mop is, in professional cleaning, used as a second step in the cleaning
of a surface. The wet mop is swept over the surface to dissolve and absorb fat, mud and dried-in liquid contamination.
      C)    Yarn mop
In daily usage, a mop is usually equal to a yarn mop. The mop (eye) consists of thick strings of long yarn (about 25 cm) or, in newer models, soft strands of water-absorbing fabric. A yarn mop is usually mounted on a long (about 1.5 m) handle with a ganged end on which the mop cane fastened by turning it clockwise. To clean a floor, the mop is soaked in a bucket of water, usually mixed with a cleaning solution and swept against the surface. Some buckets include a wringer to strain excess water from the mop, so as not to saturate the floor and as not to leave excessive water on the floor. Leaving too much water on the floor will usually result in dust collection and thus result in a less clean floor. Yarn mops are also often used to clean up liquid spills.
        D)    Mop for pre moistening
In professional cleaning, mops are often preimpregnated with an ideal amount of liquid. This ideal amount is often recommended by the manufacturer in terms of weight percent of water per dry weight mop, (175% water). Mops for pre-moistening are flat sheets of (often micro fiber) textile, usually about 15 cm wide, and comes in variable lengths (usually 30 to 100 cm). Mops for pre-moistening is fastened on a long handle with a flat pad with the aid of Velcro or a pouch on the mop, in which the pad on the handle fits.

       E)    Pre moistening
Pre-moistening can be done with a special washing machine or by hand by simply folding
and packing the mops tight in a container and pouring the measured amount of water over them. The mops will then need about 5 to 10 min for the liquid to distribute evenly in their tissue before use. Advantages with pre moistening are:
The cleaner does not have to have a bucket of water with him / her when cleaning the floor, but simply carries an appropriate amount of mops. The risk of over-wetting the floor and leaving pools of water which collects dust is eliminated if the wetting is ideal.
       F)     Hot mop
Wet mop is also called the hot mop, which works on a similar concept to a steam iron. After adding water, it is heated to make the water exude on top of a floor, which can then be cleaned without using a cleaning solvent. These can work best on surfaces where a regular mop would also be used, such as floors, hearths, and laminates. 
       3)       BROOM
A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibers attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. A smaller whisk broom or brush is sometimes called a duster. 
      4)      MELAMINE FOAM
Melamine foam is a foam-like material consisting of a formaldehyde-melamine-sodium bisulfate copolymer. The foam, because of its micro porous properties, may remove otherwise "uncleanable" external markings from relatively smooth surfaces. For example, it can remove crayon, magic marker, and grease from painted walls, wood finishing’s, and grime from hub caps.
       5)       SQUEEGEES
A squeegee is a cleaning tool with a flat, smooth and thick rubber blade, used to remove or control the flow of liquid on a flat surface. It is used for cleaning floors and small thin and flexible squeegee is used for cleaning windows.
       6)      CLOTHS
1. Floor cloths
It is a yarn fabric usually made from loosely spun yarn. They are used for removal of spillages from the floor
2. Wipes and swabs
            These are cloths used for wet cleaning of surfaces above floor level.
3. Scrim
It is a loosely woven linen cloth which is absorbent and does not leave stains. They are suitable for cleaning glazed area.
4. Rags / disposable cloths
This old discarded linen are obtained from the linen room and used for the purpose of general cleaning. They are discarded when heavily soiled.
5. Dust sheets
These are thin cotton sheets used to cover furniture especially during special/ spring cleaning. They are also old discarded linen obtained from linen room.
6. Drugget
It is a sort of cheap stuff, very thin and narrow, usually made of wool, or half wool and half silk or linen; it may have been corded or plain. They are used for rugs, tablecloths, carpet square to protect the floor during bad weather and during redecoration.
7. Hearth and bucket cloths
These are thick fabric cloths placed under the buckets to prevent marking of the floor/ surface.
8. Chamois leather
            It is a skin of chamois goat. They are used for cleaning windows and mirrors.
7)      CARPET SWEEPER
Carpet sweeper is a mechanical device for the cleaning of carpets in place. They were popular before the introduction o f vacuum cleaners and have been largely superseded by them. However, some restaurants continue to use them (as they are lightweight and very quiet, enabling the wait staff to quickly clean crumbs up from the floor without disturbing other diners. A carpet sweeper typically consists of a small box. The base of the box has rollers and brushes, connected by a belt or gears. There is also a container for dirt. The arrangement is such that when pushed along a floor the rollers turn and force the brushes to rotate. The brushes sweep dirt and dust from the floor and deposit the particles into the container. Carpet sweepers would frequently have a height adjustment that enabled them to work on different lengths of carpet, or carpet less floors. The sweeper would usually have a long handle so that it could be pushed without bending over.


8)       SPRAY BOTTLE:
A Spray Bottle is a bottle that can squirt, spray or mist fluids. A common use for spray bottles is dispensing cleaners and chemical formulation through a fine nozzle for cleaning.

MECHANICAL CLEANING EQUIPMENTS
      1)      Vacuum Cleaners
1.      Upright vacuum cleaners
2.      Canister (or cylinder
3.      Wet vans or wet / dry vacuums
4.      Back-pack vans
5.      Robotic vacuum cleaners
6.      Small hand-held vacuum cleaners
7.      Drum vacuums
       2)      Scrubbing / Polishing Machines
       3)      Hot Water Extraction

       1)      Vacuum Cleaners
            A vacuum cleaner uses an air pump to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors. Most hotels with carpeted floors possess a vacuum cleaner for cleaning. The dirt is collected by a filtering system or a cyclone for later disposal.
Vacuum cleaners come in variety of models owing to their usage:
1. Upright vacuum cleaners take the form of a cleaning head, onto which a handle and bag are attached. Upright designs usually employ a rotating brush-roll, which removes dirt through a combination of sweeping and vibration. There are two types of upright vacuums; dirty-fan / direct air, or clean-fan/ indirect air.
2. Canister (or cylinder) designs have the motor and bag in separate canister unit (usually mounted on wheels) connected to the vacuum head by a flexible hose. Although upright units have been shown to be more effective (mainly because of the beaters), the lighter, more maneuverable heads of canister models are popular. Some up market canister models have “power heads", which contain the same sort of mechanical beaters as in upright units; such beaters are driven by separate electric motor.
3. Wet vans or wet / dry vacuums - a specialized form of the canister vacuum - can be used to clean up wet or liquid spills. They commonly can accommodate both wet and dry spoilage.
Some are also equipped with a switch or exhaust port for reversing the airflow, a useful function for everything from clearing a clogged hose to blowing dust into a corner for easy collection.
4. Back-pack vans are commonly used for commercial cleaning: They allow the user to move rapidly about a large area. They are essentially canister vacuum cleaners, except that straps are used to carry the canister unit on the user's back.
5. Built-in or central vacuum cleaners move the suction motor handbag to a central location in the building and provide vacuum inlets at strategic places throughout the building: only the hose and pickup head need be carried from room to room. Plastic piping connects the vacuum outlets to the central unit. The vacuum head may either be unpowered or have beaters operated by an electric motor or air-driven motor. The dirt bagin a central vacuum system is usually so large that emptying or changing needs to be done less often. Since this central unit is usually located outside the living area, no dust is recirculated back into the room being cleaned. In addition, because of the remote location of the motor unit, there is less noise in the room being cleaned than with a standard vacuum cleaner.
6. Robotic vacuum cleaners move autonomously, usually in a mostly chaotic pattern ('random bounce'). Some come back to a docking station to charge their batteries, and a few are able to empty their dust containers into the dock as well.
7. Small hand-held vacuum cleaners, either battery-operated or mains powered, are also popular for cleaning up smaller spills.
8. Drum vacuums are used in industrial applications. With such configuration, a vacuum "head" sits atop of an industrial drum, using it as the waste or recovery container. Electric and Compressed Air powered models are common. Compressed air vacuums utilize the venture effect. Most vacuum cleaners are supplied with various specialized attachments, tools, brushes and extension wands to allow them to reach otherwise inaccessible places or to be used for cleaning variety of surfaces.
2)      Scrubbing / Polishing Machines
            Scrubbing/ Polishing Machines consist of one large or several small brushes which revolve and scrub the floor while water and detergent are released from a tank attached to a machine. With suitable brushes this versatile machine can be used for shampooing carpets, polishing, spray buffing, spray cleaning or polishing floors.
3)      Hot Water Extraction
            Hot water extraction also known "steam cleaning" is the method of deep rinse cleaning of the entire carpet. But actual live steam (vapor created at boiling point of water) is not employed in the cleaning process. Hot water extraction is a deep cleaning process that removes embedded soils that have been carried or blown over the carpet. A hot water extraction machine, whether portable or truck mounted, has a pump which dispenses water, under pressure, through spray nozzles into the carpet and a high powered vacuum system that sucks the dirty water into a holding tank within the extraction machine. This system includes a three step process:
1. Pre-spray carpeted area with a detergent that is not too strong (or too alkaline). They may damage the carpet.
2. Agitate with a power scrubber which utilizes a rotary brush to loosen soils. This will not only loosen soils but help cleaning agents penetrate into carpet fibers to deep clean the entire carpet fiber.
3. A complete rinse with softened hot water is used. The clean, softened, hot water is sprayed onto the carpet fibers through spray nozzles. The spray rinses all added chemicals, cleaners, and dirt into an attached high-powered vacuum shoe that sucks the dirty solution back into a holding tank on the extraction unit. The removed soil is held in the tank until it may be disposed of later in sanitary drain, toilet, or proper waste facility. Solutions should not be dumped onto the ground outside, in storm sewers, or in the streets.
SELECTION OF EQUIPMENTS
As equipments are expensive, their selection is of utmost importance. The correct choice and quality of equipment could save costs due to break-downs, reduce fatigue and thereby demands on labor as also ensure efficiency in overall operations. In determining the purchase of equipments, the following need to be kept in mind.
1. Quality of equipments by usage history in other organizations.
2. Reliability of supplier to meet time deadlines.
3. Transportation on time to replenish stocks/replacements.
4. Equipments should be light, well balanced and easy to manipulate.
5. Availability of future stocks.
6. Sturdiness in terms of usage.
7. Cost factors.

RULES FOR STORAGE OF EQUIPMENTS
1. The store should be dry and well ventilated as dampness causes rust of metal parts or mildew leading to deterioration of equipments.
2. The store should provide enough space for easy access to shelves and to facilitate proper cleaning.
3. There should be adequate racks and cupboards properly labeled for easy identification.
4. Stock records should be maintained showing:
·         Date of purchase
·         Kind of stock and quantity
·         Name of supplier
·         Cost per unit
·         Date of issue into service
·         Remarks on suitability and durability
5. Certain rules must be maintained for the issue of stocks:
·         A definite time should be specified for issue
·         Issue should be done strictly against worn out equipment.
·         Equipment should be clearly marked as to the floor or public area.
6. Storage rooms should be subject to regular inspection.
7. Expensive equipments like vacuum cleaners should be covered with polythene sheets and kept air-tight.
CLEANING AGENTS
            Cleaning Agents are substances, usually in liquid form, that are used to remove dirt, including dusts, stain, bad smell and clutter in solid surfaces. Purposes of using cleaning agents include health, beauty, elimination of offensive odor, and to avoid the spreading of dirt and contaminants to oneself and others. Some cleaning agents can kill bacteria & other microbes and clean at the same time. Cleanliness is a basic need that a hotel must fulfill and industrial cleaning agents are often the easiest, most efficient and economical option available.




TYPES OF CLEANING AGENTS 
       1)           Solvents
       2)      Detergents & Soaps
      3)      Abrasives
        4)      Liquid Cleaning Agents
       5)      Washing Soda
       6)      Soda-Bars, Powders and Flakes 
       7)      Window Cleansers
        8)      Acids and Alkali
      9)      Absorbents
1     0)  Paraffin Oil
       11)  Polishes
1      2)  Disinfectants, Antiseptics & Deodorants

       1)      SOLVENTS
            A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid or liquid solute, resulting in a solution. The most common solvent used in everyday life is water. It is the simplest cleaning agent and some forms of dirt will be dissolved by it, but normally unless it is used in conjunction with some other agent like detergent, water is not an effective cleaning agent. Precaution must be taken to change the water frequently when it gets dirty because it could leave a film of dirt instead of removing it. Warm water dissolves soap more readily than cold water; hence it must be used to remove dirty soap lather. Caution must be taken that the water is ‘soft’ as most detergents are ineffective with hard water. Moreover, hard water does not wet the surface adequately which is a precondition for good cleaning action.

  
         2)      DETERGENTS & SOAPS
            Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. The term is sometimes used to differentiate between soap and other chemical surfactants used for
cleaning purposes. Detergents and soaps are used for cleaning because pure water can't remove oily, organic soiling. Soap cleans by acting as an emulsifier. Basically, soap allows oil and water to mix so that oily grime can be removed during rinsing. Detergents are primarily surfactants (Example Tween 20), which are produced from petrochemicals. Surfactants lower the surface tension of water, essentially making it 'wetter' so that it is less likely to stick to itself and more likely to interact with oil and grease. Detergents are similar to soap, but they are less likely to form films (soap scum) and are not as affected by the presence of minerals in water (hard water). There are several factors that dictate what compositions of detergents should be used, including the material to be cleaned, the apparatus to be used, and tolerance for and type of dirt.
          3)      ABRASIVES
            Abrasive cleaners generally use some kind of grit to boost their cleaning ability, along with detergents, acids, alkalis and other compounds. Some are in powder form while others are suspensions of abrasive in liquid. The quartz or silica that constitutes the grit will easily scratch and / or damage softer surfaces such as laminate, fiberglass, stainless steel, etc. Even on very hard surfaces such as porcelain, use caution. Over time, abrasives will dull and scratch the surface. Abrasives can be classified as:
a.       Fine abrasive: includes whiting (filtered chalk), jewels rouge (a pink oxide of iron).
b.      Medium abrasive: includes scouring powders and paste. Scouring powders are made up of fine minerals generally lime stone or calcite mixed with soap or detergent and alkali to remove grease and little bleach.
c.       Hard abrasive: includes sand paper, steel wool etc. Other examples are glass, sand and emery papers, steel wool, nylon web, powdered pumice and fine ash. These are used as finely ground powder, example are scouring powders like Vim or liquid or cream form. Abrasive cleaners will often work where others fail. Liquid abrasive cleaners are generally more expensive but are more convenient to use.
         4)      LIQUID CLEANING AGENTS
            Liquid cleaning agents can be either diluted in a little water or used directly with a dry      cloth.
a.       Ammonia is alkali which softens water and emulsifies grease.
b.      Methylated sprits are effective against grease stains.
c.       Paraffin is also grease solvent.
d.      Turpentine is a grease and paint solvent.
e.       Vinegar is a mild acid (acetic acid) unaffected by hard water and useful in removing light stains in baths.
f.       Hydrochloric acid is useful in removing stubborn stains in bathrooms but care must be taken in its use as it is damaging to the skin and destroys fabrics and light bathroom fittings.
g.      Carbon tetrachloride is also excellent grease solvent. Care must be exercised there, too, as the fumes are corrosive and harmful.
      5)      WASHING SODA
            This agent is quite outdated due to the advent of domestic detergents like vim, etc. However, it is particularly useful for emulsifying grease on drain pipes, gutters or stone surfaces. In strong concentration, it could be an irritant and injurious to skin, fabrics brushes, wood and paint. Washing soda is useful as a water softener and it is a chlorinated compound.
      6)      SODA-BARS, POWDERS AND FLAKES
            Nowadays soaps have been replaced by excellent synthetic soap less detergents which are unaffected by hard water. In this case rinsing is not important as these products suspend dirt and grit most effectively without leaving a smear. However, some housekeepers may not have access to these detergents and may have to rely on soaps. Powders and flakes are useful in getting instant lather but are expensive. When used, care should be taken that they are thoroughly dissolved. Being expensive, one should know exactly how much powder or flake is dissolved to get an optimum concentration for best results and also how long the resultant solution is effective. Good bar soaps are still most economical but much more strenuous to use than modern methods. They should be stored on open shelves in a dry store.
       7)      WINDOW CLEANSERS
            Window cleansers consist of water miscible solvent to which a small quantity of surfactant and possibly an alkali are added-to improve the polish effect of the cleanser. Some also contain fine abrasive. The cleanser is applied with a cleaning rag and rubbed off with a clean soft cloth. Cleansers can also be applied by spraying and the surface wiped clean.
  
          8)      ACIDS AND ALKALI
            The cleaning action is carried out by chemicals such as:
    A)     Acid: Acids are used for the removal of metal stains. Vinegar and lemon are used for the removal of tarnish of copper and brass and of mild water stains on bath tubs, etc. More resistant water stains may be removed with stronger acids such as oxalic acid or hydrochloric acid. This should be only used under strict and experienced supervision so that too much is not used and is carefully applied.
   B)     Alkali: Caustic soda, sodium hydroxide and ammonia are alkalis and are used as grease emulsifiers and stain removal agents. Strong alkaline cleaning agents based on caustic soda in flakes or in liquid form are available for the cleaning, of blocked drains, and other large industrial equipments. Extreme care is to be taken in their use as they are very strong and are highly corrosive.
    9)      ABSORBENTS
            These perform the cleaning action by absorbing the stain or grease e.g. starch, French chalk powders, and besan or gram flour. Their constituents vary and many are of vegetable origin. Unlike abrasives, they are not manufactured.
   10)  PARAFFIN OIL
            Paraffin is wax like or liquid hydrocarbon mixture used as solvent. It is also efficient for the cleaning of baths but owing to its  smell it is seldom used. Organic solvents such as Methylated spirit, white spirit (turpentine substitute) and carbon tetrachloride are grease solvents and are used for the removal of grease and wax from different surfaces. Aerosol dry cleansers are suitable for use on wallpapers.
11)  POLISHES
            They do not necessarily clean but produce a shine by providing a smooth surface from which light is reflected evenly. They do this by smoothing out any unevenness on the surface of the articles. Polishes fall into three broad categories - spirit based, oil based and water based. Spirit based is used primarily for mirrors, window panes, etc. Oil based is used on wood, linoleum and synthetic floorings, leather, tiles, etc. Water based is used on sealed floors, rubber and thermoplastic floors. Polishes may be used only after dirt and dust has been removed from surfaces. It should be used in small quantities. Ensure that the correct type of polish is used with the correct method of polishing. Polishes come in three forms liquid, paste & cream.

12)  DISINFECTANTS, ANTISEPTICS & DEODORANTS
            Disinfectants, antiseptics and deodorants are not strictly cleaning agents but are often used during cleaning operations. Disinfectants kill bacteria, antiseptics prevent bacterial growth and deodorants mask unpleasant smell by combining chemically with the particles producing the offensive smell.
SELECTION OF CLEANING AGENTS
1. Mild cleaning agents are generally preferred for cleaning as they are less injurious.
2. Strong chemicals and abrasives may be easy to clean and the surface would look better, but on             the long run it may damage the surface.
3. Cleaning agents have to be purchased in manageable containers as bulk purchases could cause congestion in stores. The containers must have reliable lids, corks as defective ones could            result in wastage due to evaporation.
4. Strong smelling agents like paraffin must be avoided due to the offensive smells they lend to    the environment.
5. Pollutant free / less polluting cleaning agents should be used to protect not only the hotel staff and guests but also people at large.
CARE AND CLEANING OF DIFFERENT SURFACES:
   1)      Metal
   2)      Glass:
   3)      Leather:
   4)      Plastic:
   5)      Ceramics:
   6)      floor finishes:
   7)      wall finishes:
1) METAL
               Metals m ay is used for their hygienic and effective qualities.  Metals such as copper and aluminum are decorative and may be used for its effect in such areas as bats.  Other metals usually used are stainless steel in the form of tiles may be used in kitchen which is more durable, easily cleared areas like wash-up and pantry.
   Cleaning:
-          Dust or wipe in damp cloth
-          Polish is not necessary as they do not furnish


2) GLASS:
               Glass can be used in the form of decorative tiles.  Sometimes in the form of mosaics colored glass sheets or tiles may be used as wall covering in the hotel bathrooms.
   Cleaning:
               -Dust or wipe with leather
               -Clean with Methylated spirit
-Care should be taken when cleaning the mirrors that back of the mirrors do not become damp.
3) LEATHER:
Leather wall coverings are extremely expensive and very decorative.  They may be padded and studded with brass studs and they do not usually cover a complete wall surface. They may be found in luxury establishment in parts of restaurants or bars.
   Cleaning:
-          Remove surface dust by dusting or careful suction cleaner.
-          Apply polish and rub up very well.

4) PLASTIC:
Many wall coverings are more decorative than others.  These are hand weaving and are more easily to clean.  They are obtainable in a variety of sizes with a great price and range of colors.
   Cleaning:
-          Remove surface dust with wall brooms.
-          Damp wipe or wash, when necessary with warm water and synthetic detergent.
-          A soft brush may be used for cleaning these surfaces.


6) CERAMICS:
Although generally easy to keep clean.  A mild alkali or synthetic detergent is a good cleaning agent on a regular basis, but a mild abrasive cleaner usually remove stains.
6) FLOOR FINISHES:
Finishes are applied to most floor surfaces to protect the flooring material from cleaners and liquid spills.  The chemical composition of the finish will vary according to the type of material for which it is intended.
7) WALL FINISHES:
The first rule for washing walls is choosing an effective cleaning solution.  Before using any recommended cleaner for the first time, test it on a small part of the wall start with a weak solution and keep adding the cleaning agent until the solutions is the right strength.
MAKING UP OF A GUEST ROOM
Making up of an Occupied room:
Care has to be taken while cleaning an occupied room. Because all guests are not the same. Most of the guest would expect certain discipline from the housekeeping staffs. And, therefore, the housekeeping staffs are trained to handle the guests as well the guest rooms properly.
v Open window if necessary remove early morning tea or breakfast tray.
v Strip bed
v Empty ashtrays, waste paper basket and generally tidy room.
v Attend to wash basin, fold towels and check for soap.
v Make bed
v Adjust window
v Dust all furniture and fittings.
v Mop surround
v Carpet sweep or vacuum clean carpet square.
v Survey room and close door.

Making up of a Vacant room:
Rooms must be cleaned each and every day even if it is vacant. Day to day care encourage high standard of work. It allows the time allocated for special cleaning to be spent out to full advantage.
v Open window
v Dust all furniture and fittings
v Mop surround
v Carpet sweep or vacuum clean carpet square.
v Check all electrical equipments as in working condition
v Attend to bathroom
v Wipe or dust all surfaces
v Adjust window
v Survey room and close door.
Making up of a Checkout room/ Departure room:
A check out is a room the guest has departed from; so there are none of his belongings there and it has to be prepared to re-let another guest.

v Open the window, if necessary remove early morning tea or breakfast tray.
v Look for lost property and wipe out drawers, inside of wardrobe and check for coat hangers.
v Strip the bed, remove soiled linen including towels.
v Make bed with clean linen.
v Adjust window
v Sweep carpet edges and upholstery if not suitable vacuum cleaner.
v Remove marks from paint work and attend to mirrors, furniture and fittings, including all ledges, pictures, lights, telephone, TV and radio, wiping dusting and polishing as necessary.
v Refill folder, replacing cards and literature if at all marked, making sure that bible and telephone directories are conveniently placed.
v Attend to bathroom
v Wash basin, bath, we
v Wipe or dust all surfaces
v Put out clean towels, soap
v Clean floor according to kind
v Vacuum clean upholstery and carpet edges if suitable vacuum clean
v Vacuum clean carpet
v Survey room and close door.
Making up of an Evening service/Turndown service:
In hotels, normally the bulk of room cleaning should have been done in the morning shift. The exception would be rooms 'with the 'do not disturb' sign. Some rooms are occupied by late night /early morning arrivals by international flights. All rooms therefore require an evening service which mostly, involves preparing the room for the guest to sleep comfortable for the night and it should be done prior to the guest retiring for the night. In this service, the bed is made for night, the room is cleared and soiled bath linen is replaced.      

v Knock at the door and enter the room as per the procedure mentioned earlier
v Put floor lights switch on mainly to ensure that all lamp bulbs are functioning
v Draw the heavy curtains
v Hang guest clothes, if laying around
v Take off bed cover, fold neatly and store in the room cupboard.
v Fold one corner of the blanket to enable a guest to slide into bed.
v Place the breakfast knob order card along with chocolate/ sweet as prescribed.
v Remove soiled glasses and bottles if any.  Replenish fresh glasses and fill the water flask with drinking water.
v Empty and clean ashtrays and waste basket
v Replace soiled towels
v Replenish  missing toiletries and other supplies
v Set climate control as directed
v Turn out all nights except the passage lamp/night lamp as prescribed
v Lock the door properly.



INSPECT GUEST ROOMS:
A supervisor has to check all the rooms on his/her floor, including all vacant room, departure room, expected arrival, VIP arrival, group arrival, blocked rooms and under repair rooms both out of service and out of order. After the end of the shift the floor supervisor has to take hand over from the GRA and make the entry in the floor register. The supervisor has to make the entry of all the DND, R/S, L/S on the floor. The supervisor has to take the handover of lost and found from the GRA for the day. Before coming to the department the supervisor has to check the floor pantry, guest elevator, and service elevator, back-area of the floor, all fire exit and corridor. The supervisor has to check the floor pantry and has to take the count of all the items in the pantry like all loan item (iron board, hot water bag, water flask, weighing machine, etc) and make an entry in the floor register. After that the supervisor has to fill the log book kept in the department. The supervisor has to make an entry of all the rooms checked by him for the day. The supervisor has to fill the key register, hand over register. The supervisor has to hand-over the lost and found and keys to the desk attendant/supervisor before leaving for the day. While dealing with the guest the floor supervisor comes across various complaints made by guests during their stay. The nature of these complaints is: Technical / mechanical complaints: these are various complaints which include maintenance related problems eg AC not working, the job of the supervisor is not only to pass on these complaints but also to get them attended as early as possible.

• Service related complaints: they are complaints related to inefficient working or cleanliness standards of the GRA. She briefs the GRA accordingly and attends to the complaint as soon as possible.
• Attitude related problems: these imply problems regarding the behavior of the GRA which may require counseling ,
• Unusual complaints: these imply undue demands made by the guest and also bad guest behavior.
• Complaints like missing items from the room after the room is cleaned by the GRA which calls for alertness, investigation and involvement of seniors.



GUEST ROOM SUPPLIES
Hotels provide guest with various amenities during their stay. The items supplied vary from hotel to hotel. It solely depends on the category of the hotel. The following are supplied to the guest for their pleasant stay:

S NO
GUEST SUPPLIES
1.       
Bath towel
2.       
Face towel
3.       
Hand towel
4.       
Slippers Soaps
5.       
Soap dish 
6.       
 Shampoos
7.       
Bath Gels 
8.       
Bath Lotions 
9.       
Shower Caps
10.   
Shaving Kits 
11.   
Dental Kits 
12.   
Sewing Kits
13.   
Shoe Shines
14.   
Shoe Mitts
15.   
Combs
16.   
Cotton Balls
17.   
Sanitary Bags
18.   
Cotton buds
19.   
Loofah
20.   
Bathrobes
21.   
Nail files
22.   
Clothes Brushes
23.   
Carry Bags
24.   
Shoe Horns
S NO
GUEST SUPPLIES
25.   
Racks
26.   
Garbage Barrels
27.   
Tissue Boxes
28.   
Shoe baskets
29.   
Rattan Baskets
30.   
Pallets
31.   
Hangers
32.   
Swizzle Sticks
33.   
Umbrellas
34.   
Gargle Tumblers
35.   
Toilet Rolls
36.   
Fruit Sticks
37.   
Water tumblers
38.   
Service directory
39.   
Guest stationery
40.   
Do Not Disturb’ cards
41.   
Bible / Gita
42.   
Ash tray
43.   
Breakfast knob cards
44.   
Room service menu
45.   
Match Box/ Lighter
46.   
Polish my shoe card
47.   
Room beverage menu
48.   
Guest house rules

BED
A bed is a piece of furniture or location primarily used as a place to rest, relax, nap or sleep. To make beds more comfortable, the top layer is frequently a mattress. Originally these were bags of straw for most people and filled with fluffy, feathers of birds for the wealthy. Eventually new filling materials such as cotton, silk cotton and artificial fillers became common. In modern times most mattresses use springs, solid foam, latex, water, or air. As time passes on more and more people are looking for a better medium to sleep, since people spend a large percentage of time in life in a bed. It has become a more recent realization for many, to attribute health deteriorations to what they lay on. Water resilient fibers (natural and synthetic), latex, synthetic foams and a combination of a huge range of different spring technologies are used in the manufacture of beds.
For greater head support, most people use a pillow, placed at the top of a mattress. Also used is some form of covering blanket to provide warmth to the sleeper, often bed sheets, a quilt, or a duvet. Also, some people prefer to dispense with the box spring and bed frame, and replace it with a platform bed style. This is more common in Europe.
HISTORY OF BED
Early beds were little more than piles of straw laid on the ground or some other natural materials. An important change was raising the beds off the ground, to avoid drafts, dirt, harboring of pests and pest attacks.
The bed of Odysseus, a charpoy woven of rope, plays a role in the Odyssey of Homer. A replica can be seen at the Museum of Welsh Life at St. Fagans, Cardiff. Ancient Romans had various kinds of beds for repose. These included:

1.      lectus cubicularis, or chamber bed, for normal sleeping;
2.      lectus discubitorius, or table bed, on which they ate - for they ate while lying on their left side -   here being usually three people to one bed, were the middle place                  
            accounted for the most honorable position;
3.      lectus lucubratorius, for studying;
4.      a lectus funebris, or emortualis, on which the dead were carried to the pyre.




 BED SIZES
Beds come in a wide array of shapes and sizes. Most countries have a standard set of four sizes of mattresses. While the Double size appears to be a standard among English speaking countries, based on the imperial measurement of 4 ft. 6 in. by 6 ft. 3 in., the sizes for other bed types tend to vary. The European sizes  differ; and their measurements are based on the metric system.
STANDARD SIZES OF BED
Modern manufacturing conventions have resulted in a limited number of standard sizes of commercial bedding for mattresses and box springs. They vary with the country of origin.
U.S SIZES
S NO
TYPE OF BED
SIZE OF BED
1.       
Twin Extra Long
38 × 80 in (0.99 × 2.03 m) this size is
fairly popular in college dormitories
2.       
Three Quarter
48 × 75 in (1.22 × 1.90 m) often (47-48)
X 72 in. This size is considered obsolete
by the major manufacturers
3.       
Super Single
48 × 84 in (1.22 × 2.13 m)
4.       
Olympic Queen
66 × 80 in (1.68 × 2.03 m) a novelty size
by Simmons.
5.       
California Queen
60 × 84 in (1.52 × 2.13 m)
6.       
Eastern King
            76 x 80 in (1.93 x 2.03 m) An alternate
name for a U.S. King.
7.       
California King
72 × 84 in (1.83 × 2.13 m) A common
size on the West Coast of the United
States. Also called a Western King, West
Coast King, or WC King.
8.       
Long King
72 x 104 in (1.83 m × 2.64m)

U.K SIZES
S NO
TYPE OF BED
SIZE OF BED
1.       
Small Single
30 × 75 in (0.76 × 1.91 m)
2.       
Super Single
42 × 75 in (1.07 × 1.91 m)
3.       
Small Double
48 × 75 in (1.22 × 1.91 m) also called
three quarter
4.       
Normal Double
54 x 75 in (1.37 x 1.91 m)
            EUROPEAN SIZES
S NO
TYPE OF BED
SIZE OF BED
1.       
Normal Size
80 cm bed or 80 x 200 cm bed.
2.       
Extra Small Single
(30 × 79 in) 0.75 × 2 m
3.       
Small Single
(31 × 79 in) 0.8 × 2 m
4.       
Large Single
(39 × 79 in) 1 × 2 m

BED LINEN:
            Bed linen should be comfortable beds the linen should have a good appearance bed linen should and with stand abrasion while on the bed and during laundering.
BLANKETS
            Blankets provides warmth in bed, it is usually to provide one under blanket (bed pad) two or three top blankets for each bed.  The size of blankets for each bed. The size of the blanket various tremendously.  But they are generally little shorter than sheet. White of dale colored blanket are more often used in hotels.
            Size of the blanket:    70” X 100” (or) 175 X 250 cm (single)
                                                90” X 100” (or) 228 X 250 cm (double)


BOLSTER


A bolster is a long narrow pillow or cushion filled with cotton, down, or fibre. A bolster is also referred to as a cushion, or a pillow . In western countries, a bolster is usually placed at the head of one's bed and functions as head or back support. Bolster pillows are also used as bumpers in cribs and for lounging on the floor in family and kid's rooms.


BED SPREAD QUILT 


Bed spread quilt is a type of bed cover, traditionally composed of three layers of fiber: a woven cloth top, a layer of batting or wadding and a woven back, combined using the technique of quilting. A quilt is distinguishable from other types of blankets because it is pieced together with several pieces of cloth. “Quilting” refers to the technique of joining at least two fabric layers by stitches or ties. In most cases, two fabric layers surround a middle layer of batting (cotton, polyester, silk, wool or combinations of fibers) which is a lighter, insulating layer. 






MATTRESS


A good mattress ensures sound sleep which is one of the basic necessities of human beings. People are slowly and steadily realizing the importance of investing in good quality mattresses. The top mattress brands in India produce a number of different types of mattresses that suit the requirements of the people. 


TYPES OF MATTRESS


1. Coir Mattresses
2. Foam mattress
3. Latex mattress
4. Viso elastic mattress
5. Waterbed mattress
6. Futons mattress.


PILLOW


These are generally made from the same fabric as that of the bed linen. The housewife tuck-in type is now rapidly being replaced by the longer bag-type which is folded in at the open end. Pillows are soft cushion like structures mainly used for comfort and sometimes they are used for preventing or minimizing pain in an injured area. In hotels, they are used to provide comfort for the guests and also used for decorating a hotel room. There are a wide range of pillows available in different shapes, sizes and colors.


Standard Pillow Sizes
Standard Pillow -- 20" x 26"
Queen Pillow -- 20" x 30"
King Pillow -- 20" x 36"
European or Continental Pillow --26" x 26"
Boudoir Pillow -- 12" x 16”


Below are the types of the pillows which can be used in the hotel:

TYPES OF THE PILLOWS


1) Traditional Pillows
2) Neck Pillows
3) Body Pillows
4) Travel Pillows
5) Donuts
6) Lumbar Pillows
7) Husband Pillows
1. TraditionalPillows:
These are available in different sizes like standard size, queen size and king size, these easily fit in to the pillow cases and can be provided to the guests for a good sleep.


2. NeckPillows:
Neck pillows are available in standard size and travel size. These are U shaped or cylindrical, used while sitting because they have a deeper depression where the head lies and extra support under the neck. Neck pillows are also called as cervical pillows.


3. BodyPillows:
Body pillows are useful for people who sleep on their sides most of the time, and for pregnant women. Body pillows support the entire body while sleeping.


4. TravelPillows:
It creates a support, so that the weight of the head is partially taken care of by the pillow and relieves some of the work done by the muscles keeping the head up and may be beneficial while sleeping in a sitting position.


5. Donuts:
These are sometimes used to alleviate pressure on the tailbone area, these are helpful for the people suffering from the diseases like hemorrhoid or broken tailbones.


6. LumbarPillows:
These pillows are round in shape and they are very useful while driving on a long trip or when sitting at a desk and they support the lower back of the human body.


7. HusbandPillows:
If the guest in the hotel room is a businessman and uses laptop, in such cases husband pillows are very useful as they have high back and an extension on either side that look like arms.


Pillow cover


Pillow slip will be made of the some materials as the sheet, frills and stitching are not recommended and the house wife. Flat is the most usually bottom burned and to the red slips need more attraction regarding repairs. Even with the house wife and hence so, the pillow is hidden slip should be fills, easily over the pillow.


Size of the pillow slip: 20” X 30” (or) 50 X 75 cm


200 X 200 cm (double)


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