NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES


CLASSIFICATION
Ø HOT BEVERAGES
Ø COLD BEVERAGES

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BEVERAGE-The word beverage is derived from the Latin word “bever” meaning rest from work,Beverages are thirst quenching, refreshing, stimulating and nourishing qualities

CLASSIFICATION OF BEVERAGES=

STIMULATING DRINKS--Stimulants Contain caffeine---Relaxes  our muscles  by accelerating our heart beat  & hence the pulse rate--Stimulate the central nervous system-

NOURISHING DRINKS--Nourishing drinks  provide nourishment to our body, ex -milk, bournvita, horlicks--Contain proteins, minerals, vitamins which nourish our body

REFRESHING DRINKS--Fresh juices like orange, pineapple, tomato fresh lime soda, mock tails, syrups  and aerated drinks provide instant energy to our body in form of fructose  and glucose --Our system gets charged and refreshed by these drinks

COLD BEVERAGES--A soft drink is a drink that contains no (or very little, less than .5%) alcohol, as opposed to a hard drink, which does contain alcohol—MINERAL WATER-- is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value--Salts, sulphur compounds, and gases are among the substances that can be dissolved in the water--Mineral water can often be effervescent (carbonated/sparkling/fizzy)--Mineral water can be prepared or can occur naturally—

FAMOUS AERATED DRINKS---Coca-Cola (Coca-Cola Company) --Sprite (Coca-Cola Company) --Pepsi (PepsiCo) --Mountain Dew (PepsiCo) --Dr Pepper (Dr. Pepper/7 Up Company) ----7Up (Dr. Pepper/7 Up Company [in the United States]) --Fanta --Root beer (Traditional soft drink) --Sarsaparilla soda (Traditional soft drink) --Moxie (the first American mass produced soft drink) -- Yoo- Hoo chocolate flavored soft drink)
TONIC WATER-- Tonic water, or Indian tonic water gains its name from the medicinal effects of this slightly bitter flavouring--It is aerated  and  mildly sweetened water with quinine .--It is anti malarial -- Can be taken straight, goes well with Gin ,Vodka

MINERAL WATER, BRANDS -Mineral water can be made by purifying and adding essential mineral & salts required by our system---

--Appolianiris- sparkling –Germany/Contrex-still –France/Perrier-still & sparkling-France/Vichy Celestine-sparkling –France/Vittel - still-France
NATURAL/ SPRING MINERAL WATERS- BRANDS--These mineral waters are found in natural springs, mountain glaciers ---Ashbourne-still/sparkling-England/Badiot-still /sparkling-France/Evian- still- France/Malvern-still/sparkling-France/


HOT BEVERAGES--TEA –COFFEE-COCOA


TEA --Botanical name is Camellia sinenses--Native of  China, produced in  India, ,Indonesia,Malaysia,Laos,Burma,Japan--Plant is 2 to 3 feet  high, like a shrub--Pruning done after 1 year,for fresh shoots--Grown on hilly slopes--Requires humid climate good rainfall  & no stagnation of water near the plants-Contain approximately only half the caffeine of coffee


COUNTRIES--China: oldest producer of Keemun, Lapsang, Green Tea, Souchong, Oolong--East Africa: Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe: bright coppery and brisk---India: Assam, Darjeeling and Nilgiri: largest producer of tea; about 30% of the world tea--Indonesia: Light fragrant with bright colors, used mainly for blending--Sri Lanka: Delicate light lemon flavour, excellent afternoon teas, good for ice tea


MANUFACTURING OF TEA--Plucking of top leaves is done ,--Approximately 40 kg of leaves are plucked in first shift--They  are  sent for WITHERING, where tea leaves are  spread  on perforated racks under the sun for 24 hours--The moisture level comes down to 50% ---During rainy season  tea leaves are sent to withering room & dried by blowing hot air over them---

ROLLING & FIRING---The tea leaves are passed through a  special crusher---The leaves rupture and juice comes out--The juice contains  tannin, which  comes in contact  with air & gets oxidized to form deep copperish  color  (takes minimum 3 hours)--

ROLLING & FIRING--Finally firing is done by exposing the leaves to dry warm air until moisture content is 3%--Leaves acquire a black  color, they are packed properly & sent for sale--This is the orthodox method of making tea

TYPES OF TEA--Green Tea –Leaves which are not fermented---Black Tea –Leaves are fermented  to maximum----Oolong Tea - Leaves are partially fermented. (Taiwan)---Tisanes-Herbal tea or Herbal infusions---CTC=cut  tear curl ,it is a method of rolling–leaves are passed through grooved cylinders  whereby they get cut & torn & curled ---Leg cut =leaves are shredded into strips,miximum tannin comes  out, fermentation is quick


STORAGE---Dry and clean covered container to avoid brightness or sunlight---Should be stored in Well ventilated area---Away from excess moisture---Away from strong odours ,like perfumes ,pesticides or organic chemicals
POPULAR TEAS---Assam: rich, malty - breakfast/milk---Darjeeling: Light grape flavor - afternoon/ little milk---Jasmine: green unoxidized, jasmine blossom---Earl Grey: Blend of Darjeeling and China - lemon or milk---Herbal: camomile, peppermint, rosehip, hibiscus---Twining (Kolkata)---Ceylon Tea (Watawala Plantation,Sri Lanka)--Tetley-Standard teabags used at Taj hotels
SPECIAL TEAS---Yunnan (China): Yunnan is considered one of China’s “noble” varieties and is unique in that it combines aroma with strength   Nicknamed “the mocha of tea”, ----Imperial Souchong (China): young tender leaves blended with jasmine flowers---Great Mandarin (China) : Flavored with jasmine and perfect accompaniment for Chinese food.---Assam (India ): Assam teas are bold with a strong malty taste and dark liquor, making them excellent morning teas. Bursting with rich, round flavour, ---


GOLDEN RULES FOR MAKING TEA---Avoid using chlorinated water, hard water---Avoid water that has been boiled before---Rinse out the teapot with boiling hot water---Pour water over the tea just as it reaches boiling point---The infusion time ( 2 to5 minutes )depends on the variety of tea  used---If over infused, the tannins spread and make the tea dark and bitter---Just before serving, stir the tea in the teapot using a spoon---If tea  leaves are left in the pot, use a strainer when pouring


TEA COMPANIES / BRANDS—1,-Lipton---Celestial Seasonings---2, Salada---3, Twinings---4, Good Earth Teas---5, East Indian Company---6, Ginar---7, the Nashville Tea Company


COFFEE---Coffee is found in  south America,Africa,Asia---Brazil ,Columbia, Ivory coast, India, Ceylon---Botanical name is Coffea  Rubiaceae(family)--Species=Coffee Arabica coffee canephora & liberica---Requires high humidity, high  rainfall & cooler climate--Blending can be done  two or more batches of beans---Fruit is called berry---It is 1.5 cms in length & oblong in shape---Berry has 2 coffee seeds---Fruit comes after the plant is of 3 years---Yields  fruit till 16 years---Requires cool climate, plenty of rainfall---Water should not stagnate round the plant--- Coffee was first consumed in the 9th century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia. From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen


PROCESSING OF BEANS---First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand---Then, they are sorted by ripeness and color ---The flesh of the berry is removed, by  fermentation method, pulp falls off ,beans  removed---Berry can be dried under sun, pulp dries up, seeds  are removed---The beans are roasted on kilns ,by hot air 150 degree centigrade---Light pale roasting preserves  the aroma---Medium roasting   gives strong flavour & character---Roll roasting gives bitter taste, popular in  Latin countries


BURR MILL---Quenching –is adding cold water to contain further roasting---A burr mill uses revolving elements to crush or tear the bean--- An electric grinder chops the beans with blades moving at high speeds, and mortar and pestle grinds the beans to a powder---The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used---Turkish grind is the finest grind


SPECIALTY COFFEES---Henna coffee=roasted figs with coffee seeds----Irish coffee=black coffee +Irish coffee sugar +whipped cream, served in wine glass---Café Hawaiian =pineapple juice black cold coffee + cream in long john glass---Café au lait=coffee with milk---Espresso =strong black coffee in  demitasse cup, with demarera sugar---Coffee Brule =brandy ,crushed coffee & sugar ignited in a spoon & stirred in hot coffee---Café cuppachino=blending  chocolate & cinnamon in coffee  with Chantilly cream


COCOA--Production is maximum in Ghana (Assra)---60% of world’s cocoa production is in  Africa---20% is from Brazil  & rest from south west Asia---Cocoa pod is a big oval fruit 12’’long X 4’’wide has approximately 20 to 40 seeds---After fermentation the  pulp  leaves the seeds ,acetic acid produced gives brown colour to the seeds---By Winnowing process  outer skin is removed & nib obtained, treated with alkaline



CHOCOLATE  PREPARATION---After treating with alkaline Seeds develop brown color & strong flavor---Nibs are crushed, have 50% cocoa &50 % cocoa butter---Cocoa mass is heated to 60% centigrade & churned---This is crushed by hydraulic press ,the cocoa butter separates leaving pure chocolate  as residue---Cocoa butter is used to make cosmetics & 2nd grade chocolates---Chocolate can be eaten or drunk

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