DEFINITION----A spirit is an alcoholic beverage containing ethanol that is produced by distilling the ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables----Any potable liquid containing 1/2% - 75% of ethyl alcohol by volume  ---The term "spirit" in reference to alcohol stems from Middle Eastern alchemy---The vapor given off and collected during an alchemical process (as with distillation of alcohol) was called a spirit of the original material

INTRODUCTION---In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, usually connected to other carbon or hydrogen atoms

DISTILLED BEVERAGES---The process of separating  ethyl  alcohol from the rest by condensation is distillation---The boiling point of ethyl alcohol is 78 degree centigrade & water is 100 degree centigrade, it is this volatility that is used for separating the two

COMPOUNDED BEVERAGES---Made by combining a spirit with flavoring substances, ex; Gin----Various types of liqueurs, such as Benedictine, Tia Maria, Crème de menthe  ---Various bitters such as Campari are examples of compounded beverages

ALCOHOLIC CONTENT---The word ‘proof’ refers to the alcoholic content of a spirit----In USA, the 'proof' measurement is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (e.g., 80 % proof = 40 ABV---V/ V for “Volume by volume," used to describe the  actual concentration of alcohol in a mixture

GAY LUSSAC--According to Gay lussac --100 proof is 57.1% alcohol by volume(ABV)---75 proof  spirit is ---
57.1 X 75
--------------     = 42.8 v/v

METHODSOF PRODUCING ALCOHOL,HAS TWO STEPS  FERMENTATION AND DISTILLATION---Fermentation is the action of yeast in a sugar solution, which breaks down the sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol---CO2 escapes into the air, and the alcohol, a liquid, remains behind in the original liquid, which thus becomes a fermented beverage---Beer and wines are fermented beverages---All alcoholic beverages begin with the fermentation of a liquid food product containing sugar. Wine Beer,Cider,Perry etc are made by fermentation  of grapes,barley,apples,pears respectively. Now if you want to  make spirits which have more % of ethyl alcohol you have to distill also
Ø Formula = C6 H12 06 +H2O---  yeast à    C2H5OH + CO2

DISTILLATION--Water evaporates at 100°c, and ethyl alcohol evaporates at 78°c (to maximum) ---This is used to separate ethyl alcohol from  water & residue, it is of Dutch origin, There are two methods of distillation

POT STILL DISTILLATION--Pots are made of copper, with a capacity 1000 to 1200 litres, also called  alembics.--Copper is a good conductor of heat & does not react with alcohol--They  are supported on brick kilns with fire beneath in group of twos---The wash is filled in the alembics, and it starts heating---Both the vapours of alcohol & water rise up, but more of alcohol as it vaporizes at 78°C---The vapours pass through condensers and condense into the vessel on other side ----First  distillate yields 25 to 30 % alcohol---Second distillate yields 65 to 70% alcohol---Distilled water is added to bring down the strength to 43%.---First lot of vapours are called heads or fore shoots & the last lot of vapours are tails

COFFEY STILL  / PATENT STILL DISTILLATION---ALSO CALLED AS CONTINOUS STILL PROCESS OF DISTILLATION---Invented by Robert Stein which was later modified and patented by Aeneas Coffey in the year 1831---It is a continuous distillation, process---There are two towers 80 feet high---First one is analyzer and second is rectifier---Hot wash is pumped into rectifier column & steam is injected in analyzer---Both  mix up in  baffles (special perforated trays) resulting in formation of vapors of ethanol---The condenser cools and condenses the ethanol vapors, the remaining vapors are re-cycled as spent wash ---The net result is a yield of 96% alcohol
WHISKY---Whisky, or whiskey is an alcoholic beverage that is distilled from fermented grain mash and aged in wooden casks (generally oak)--Grains  used for different varieties are barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn)--Whisky derives from the Gaelic word for "water" (uisce or uisge) meaning "Water of Life". ---It is related to the Latin ‘aqua vitae’, also meaning "water of life".

MANUFACTURING PROCESS---OF WHISKY---Barley is screened & then steeped in water for 48 hours---Starch in the barley gets converted into sugar ---The damp barley is then spread out on a malting floor. ---Germination starts and it becomes “green malt”--Roasting i of sprouted barley is  done on peat fire on kilns ---The peat or “reek” adds extra flavor to the barley which is now called “malt”---The roasted barley is crushed in mills to form grist---Grist is boiled with treated water for 36 hours and churned violently in a ‘mash tun’ to reactivate and extract the enzyme diastase and convert the starch into maltose and dextrose---This is called mash---This is completed in 3-4 washings---The first two washings give a semi-transparent sweetish liquid called “wort”---The remaining washings called “sparge” is used with the next batch---The “wort” is cooled to 16 °C and transferred to fermenting vats or steel ‘wash tuns’ ---Now cultured yeast is added for fermentation process---The yeast  convert the maltose in the “wort” to dextrose and then to alcohol and carbon dioxide ---The result is a beer like ‘wash’ with and alcoholic strength of 7-10%-
The wash is distilled in a “Pot Still” which is known as a ‘wash still’ where alcohol separates and condenses as “low wines” which is a fairly weak and impure spirit --The result is then redistilled in another ‘pot still’ called as “Spirit Still”---The first and last distillate called as  ‘foreshots’ and ‘feints’ are pungent, crude and contains high degree of impurities---The main body called as ‘heart’ is a raw colorless whisky with a powerful aroma---Dilution is done using distilled water to reduce the alcoholic strength---The young whisky is pumped into casks of 33-144 gallons capacity where it matures for a minimum legal requirement of 3 years---But usually it is matured between 15 years and beyond---As the whisky rests air penetrates through the pores and mellows the whisky---The damp conditions in the cellar reduces the alcohol content and slightly
increases the volume—

BLENDING was first done in 1853---Usually blending involved combining various malts and grains or whiskies from different distilleries



OTHER WHISKIES--American Whiskey---Distilled from grains such as rye, corn, millet and barley---Usually made using the sour mash process


Canadian Whisky- It is distilled from several grains such as corn, wheat, malted barley and rye

Irish  Whiskey-It is made in Ireland, Distilled by  It is distilled from a fermented mash of malted barley, un-malted barley, corn, rye, and other small grains


SCOTCH WHISKY BRANDS- BLENDED –a, Royal Salute b,-Bells  c, Black and White d, Cutty Sark

SCOTCH REGULAR—a, J&B Rare  b, Teachers d, Passport e,White Horse f,White Label  g,Dewar’s  h,Grants  I, McKinley

CANADIAN WHISKIES   --a, Canadian Club   b, Crown Royal   c, Windros   d, Golden Wedding e, Royal Reserve  f,Black Velvet  g,Wiser Deluxe
, h, G & W Special

IRISH WHISKIES—a, John  Jameson b,Old  Bush mills c,Tullamore Dew d,Paddy  irish e,Dunphy’s  Original Irish f,Power Gold Label,G,Middleton Rare

AMERICAN WHISKIES—a, Southern comfort b, Old Grand Dad c, Old Crow d, Old Turkey e, Jack Daniels  f,Virginia Gentlemen g,Early times h,Jim Beam h,Old Forester I,G.W.Bourbon

INDIAN WHISKIES—a,Peter Scot b,McDowell's Signature  c,McDowell's Premium  d,Vintage  e,Bagpiper’s Gold  f,Colonel’s Special g,Director’s special


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