TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT-I UNIT I



TOURISM – DEFINITION AND MEANING


In India we see the origin of the concept of Tourism in Sanskrit Literature. It has given us three terms derived from the root word “Atana” which means going out and accordingly we have the terms:

Tirthatana – It means going out and visiting places of religious merit.

Paryatana - It means going out for pleasure and knowledge.

Deshatana - It means going out of the country primarily for economic gains.

In simple terms Tourism is the act of travel for the purposes of leisure, pleasure or business, and the provision of services for this act.

There are two important components that make up tourism:

1. The practice of travelling for pleasure.

2. The business of providing tours and services for persons travelling.

Here we are discussing the features of the above two components

The following are required, to make travel possible:

1. Discretionary income, i.e. money to spend on non-essentials

2. Time in which to do so.

3. Infrastructure in the form of accommodation facilities and means of transport.

There are four basic services to be provided for Tourists:

1. Travel Arrangements

2. Board and Lodging

3. Food

4. Entertainment


THE MEANING OF TOURISM 

Tourism involves the movement of people. That movement might either be within their own countries - which is called “domestic tourism” - or to and from other countries - which is called “International tourism”. In either case, the movement involves travel, by different means (by road, or rail or water or air) over long or short distances. Therefore, tourism and travel are completely interrelated.

DEFINITION

“Tourism is the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and activities during their stay at those destinations; it includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits and excursions.”

DEFINITION

“Tourism might be defined in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment. Tourism might or might not involve overnight stays away from home.”

CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM

Five main characteristics of tourism may be identified from the definition

1. Tourism arises from a movement of people to stay in various destinations.

2. There are two elements in all tourism:

a) The journey to the destination

b) The stay at the destination.

3. The journey and the stay take place outside the usual place of residence and work.

4. The movement to destinations is of temporary short-term.

5. Destinations are visited for purposes other than taking up permanent residence.

CLASSIFICATION OF TOURISM

As per WTO, Tourism can be classified into the following forms

1) Inbound tourism: Visits to a country by non-resident of that country

2) Outbound tourism: Visits by the residents of a country to another country

3) Domestic tourism: It involves travelling by the residents of the given country within their own country.

4) Internal tourism: It comprises of domestic tourism and inbound tourism.

5) International tourism: It comprises of inbound tourism and outbound tourism

TYPES OF TOURISTS

1) International Tourist-An international tourist has been defined as a person visiting India on a foreign passport, staying at least 24 hours in India and the purpose of whose journey can be classified under one of the following headings:

· Leisure (recreation, holiday, health, study, religion and sport).

· Business, Family, Mission and Meeting.

a) Excursionist- he is a visitor staying less than 24 hours in the country including cruise passengers.

b) Cruise Passenger- he is a visitor who arrives in the country aboard cruise ships and who does not spend a night in an accommodation establishment in the country.

2) Domestic Tourist- A person who travels within the country to a place other than his usual place of residence and stays at hotels or other accommodation establishments run on commercial bases or in dharamshalas or stays with friends and relatives and uses sightseeing facilities, or goes on a pilgrimage for a duration of not less than 24 hours or one night and not more than 6months at a time for any of the following purposes:

1) Pleasure(holiday, leisure, sports and so on)

2) Pilgrimage, Religious and Social functions

3) Study and Health

TYPES OF TOURISM IN INDIA

India has always been known for its hospitality, uniqueness, and charm – attributes that have been attracting foreign travelers to India in hordes. Being a country with tremendous diversity, India has a lot to offer in terms of tourism and related activities.

1) ADVENTURE TOURISM-As a kind of tourism in India, adventure tourism has recently grown in India. This involves exploration of remote areas and exotic locales and engaging in various activities. For adventure tourism in India, tourists prefer to go for trekking to places like Ladakh, Sikkim, and Himalaya. Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir are popular for the skiing facilities they offer. Whitewater rafting is also catching on in India and tourists flock to places such as Uttranchal, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh for this adrenalin-packed activity.

2) WILDLIFE TOURISM-India has a rich forest cover which has some beautiful and exotic species of wildlife – some of which that are even endangered and very rare. This has boosted wildlife tourism in India. The places where a foreign tourist can go for wildlife tourism in India are the Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary, Keoladeo Ghana National Park, and Corbett National Park.

3) MEDICAL TOURISM-Tourists from all over the world have been thronging India to avail themselves of cost-effective but superior quality healthcare in terms of surgical procedures and general medical attention. There are several medical institutes in the country that cater to foreign patients and impart top-quality healthcare at a fraction of what it would have cost in developed nations such as USA and UK. It is expected that medical tourism in India will hold a value around US$ 2 billion by 2012. The city of Chennai attracts around 45% of medical tourists from foreign countries

4) PILGRIMAGE TOURISM-India is famous for its temples and that is the reason that among the different kinds of tourism in India, pilgrimage tourism is increasing most rapidly. The various places for tourists to visit in India for pilgrimage are Vaishno Devi, Golden temple, Char Dham, and Mathura Vrindavan

5) ECO-TOURISM-Among the types of tourism in India, ecotourism have grown recently. Ecotourism entails the sustainable preservation of a naturally endowed area or region. This is becoming more and more significant for the ecological development of all regions that have tourist value. For ecotourism in India, tourists can go to places such as Kaziranga National Park, Gir National Park, and Kanha National Park.

6) CULTURAL TOURISM-India is known for its rich cultural heritage and an element of mysticism, which is why tourists come to India to experience it for themselves. The various fairs and festivals that tourists can visit in India are the Pushkar fair, Taj Mahotsav, and Suraj Kund mela.




DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRAVEL AND TOURISM

  The words Travel and Tourism are used in a wider concept and a lot more than travel alone. Travel implies journeys undertaken from one place to another for any purpose including journeys to work, leisure and residence; whereas Tourism includes the journey to a destination and also the stay at a destination. All tourism includes some travel, but not all travel is tourism .A person may often travel for a wide variety of purposes of which tourism is only one. 
Some of the characteristics that distinguish tourism from travel are:

Tourism is:

1. Temporary, to distinguish it from the permanent travel of the Tramp and nomad.

2. Voluntary, to distinguish it from the forced travel of the exile and Refugee.

3. Round up, to distinguish it from the one-way journey of the Migrant.

4. Relatively long, to distinguish it from the recurrent trips of the Holiday house owner.

DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES ON THE STUDY OF TOURISM
1. Geographical Perspective - the main concern of tourism is to look into aspects like the geographical location of a place, the climate, the landscape, the environment, A geographer feels that it is the climate, landscape or physical attributes which draw the tourist to a destination, for example; if a Person from Delhi goes to Shimla in the summer he does so because of the cooler climate which he cannot get in Delhi

2. Sociological Perspective - From a sociologist’s perspective Tourism is a social activity; it is about interaction between different communities—hosts and guests—and encounter between different cultures. This approach studies social classes, habits and customs of both hosts and guests in terms of tourism behavior of individuals or groups of people and the impact of tourism on society.

3. Historical Perspective - from an historian’s perspective tourism is a study of the factors instrumental in the initiation of tourism to a particular destination, For example we all know that a lot of tourists visit Taj Mahal in Agra but a historian would be interested in studying the factors that bring the tourist there, e.g. the architecture, the story behind the monument, or something else that draws them there.

4. Managerial Perspective - from the management perspective tourism is an industry, and therefore needs managerial skills in order to be properly managed. This perspective concentrates on management activities such as planning, research, pricing, marketing, control etc. as vital to the operation of a tourist establishment.

5. Economic Perspective – From an economist’s perspective tourism is a major source of foreign exchange earnings, a generator of personal and corporate incomes, a creator of employment and a contributor to government earnings.

TOURISM BODIES
DTTDC – Delhi Tourism & Transportation Development Corporation

ITDC – Indian Tourism Development Corporation

TAAI – Travel Agents Association of India

IATA – International Air Transport Associates

W.T.O. – World Tourism Organization.

Components & Elements of Tourism

There are three basic components of tourism which are also known as 3 A’s of tourism:

1. Accessibility (Reachability/Transportation): - Accessibility means reachability to the place of destination through various means of transportation. Transportation should be regular, comfortable, economical and safe. Today there are various means of transportation like airlines, railways, surface (road transportation) and water transportation. The transportation should be there for all kinds of tourists and destinations.

2. Accommodation: - It is a place where tourists can find food and shelter provided he/she is in a fit position to pay for it. There are various types of accommodation from a seven star deluxe hotel to a normal budget class hotel.

3. Attraction (Locale): - It is considered as the most important basic component of tourism. Attraction means anything that creates a desire in any person to travel in a specific tourist destination or attraction.
Locale is another basic component of tourism. The locale may be used to include the holiday destination and what it offers to the tourist. The holiday destination may offer natural attractions.
It is considered as the most important basic component of tourism. Fashion is an important factor in the demand for various tourist attractions and amenities. The tourist who visits a particular place for its natural beauty may decide to visit some other attractions due to a change in fashion.

Elements of tourism: - There are certain elements or ingredients of tourism. They are the fundamental attractions of tourism. They are.
1. Pleasing weather
2. Scenic attractions.
3. Historical and cultural factors.
4. Accessibility
5. Amenities
6. Accommodation
7. safety and security
8. Other factors
a. Guide/ escort facilities.
b. Basic medical facilities.
c. Electricity
d. Water
e. Communication system.

1. Pleasing weather: - Fine weather with warm sun shine is one of the most important attractions of any tourist place. Particularly good weather plays an important role in making a holiday pleasant or an unpleasant experience. Tourist from countries with extremes of weather Visit Sea beaches in search of fine weather and sunshine. Due to this many spas and resorts along the sea coasts come into existence. In Europe, countries like Italy, Spain and Greece have developed beautiful beach resorts. There are many such resorts along the coasts of Mediterranean sea INDIA, Sri Lanka, Thailand Indonesia, Australia, Philippines and some other countries have beautiful sea beaches with fine weather are best examples where weather has played a prominent in attracting tourists. In some countries hill station resorts’ have been developed to eater the needs of tourists. The best example for this is Shimla.

2. Scenic attractions: - No doubt scenic attractions are very important factors in tourism. Scenery consisting of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, glaciers, forests, deserts, is strong forces attracting people to visit them. Thousands and thousands of tourists are attracted by the northern slopes of the Alps in Switzerland and Austria and the southern slopes at Italy and also Himalayan. Mountain slopes of India and Nepal.

3. Historical and cultural factors: - Historical and cultural interest exercised tremendous influence over travelers. Large numbers of tourists are attracted every year by the great drawing power of stratfood on avon in England because of its association with Shakespeare, or the city of Agra in India because of its famous leaning tower. Large number of Americans and Canadians visit London because of its historical and cultural attractions. So also the world famous caves of Ajanta and Ellora in India are visited by tourists because of its architecture and painting.

4. Accessibility: - Accessibility is another important factor of tourism. There should be accessibility for each and every location of tourist attractions. If their locations are inaccessible by the normal means of transport, it would be of little importance. All kinds of transport facilities are to be made available for such locations. The distance factor also plays am important role in determining a tourist’s choice of a destination. Longer distance cost much than to short distances.

5. Amenities: - Facilities are very essential for any tourist centre. They are considered necessary aid to the tourist centre. For a seaside resort facilities like swimming, boating, yachting surf riding and such other facilities like deeming recreations and amusements are an important feature. There are two types of amenities viz. natural and man made. Beaches, sea-bathing, fishing, climbing, trekking, viewing etc. are come under the former category. Various types of entertainments and facilities which cater for the special needs of the tourists come under the latter category.

6. Accommodation: - The need and necessity of accommodation cannot be ignored in tourist destination. Accommodation plays a vital role in this field. Many changes have taken place in accommodation recently. New types of accommodation, particularly, holiday villages, apartment houses camping and caravan sites and tourist cottage etc, have become very popular. Usually a large number of tourists visit a particular spot simply because there is a first class hotel with excellent facilities. Today Switzerland, Holland, Austria and the Netherlands have gained reputation for good cuisine, comfort and cleanliness.

7. Safety and Security: Safety and security are vital to providing quality in tourism. More than any other economic activity, the success or failure of a tourism destination depends on being able to provide a safe and secure environment for visitors.

Other factors: - Besides the above factors, hospitality is one such factor among the variety of factors. It is the duty of the host country to be hospitable towards tourists. For this French and Indian governments have done a lot. A series of short films on various themes like “being courteous”, “cleanliness” and “welcoming” a visitor” were prepared and exhibited through a wide network cinema theatres all over the country. Slogans like “welcome a visitor- send back a friend” were displayed at various important exists and entry points like railway stations, airports and seaports. Following the above methods, many other countries launched “Be nice” campaigns. It means that the tourists must be treated as friends. 
BASIC COMPONENTS OF TOURISM





ELEMENTS OF TOURISM
Elements of tourism: - There are certain elements or ingredients of tourism. They are the fundamental attractions of tourism. They are.
1.      Pleasing weather
2.      Scenic attractions.
3.      Historical and cultural factors.
4.      Accessibility
5.      Amenities
6.      Accommodation
7.      Safety and security
8.      Other factors
a.       Guide/ escort facilities.
b.      Basic medical facilities.
c.       Electricity
d.      Water
e.        Communication system.

1. Pleasing weather: - Fine weather with warm sun shine is one of the most important attractions of any tourist place. Particularly good weather plays an important role in making a holiday pleasant or an unpleasant experience. Tourist from countries with extremes of weather Visit Sea beaches in search of fine weather and sunshine. Due to this many spas and resorts along the sea coasts come into existence. In Europe, countries like Italy, Spain and Greece have developed beautiful beach resorts. There are many such resorts along the coasts of Mediterranean sea INDIA, Sri Lanka, Thailand Indonesia, Australia, Philippines and some other countries have beautiful sea beaches with fine weather are best examples where weather has played a prominent in attracting tourists. In some countries hill station resorts’ have been developed to eater the needs of tourists. The best example for this is Shimla.
2. Scenic attractions: - No doubt scenic attractions are very important factors in tourism. Scenery consisting of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, glaciers, forests, deserts, is strong forces attracting people to visit them. Thousands and thousands of tourists are attracted by the northern slopes of the Alps in Switzerland and Austria and the southern slopes at Italy and also Himalayan. Mountain slopes of India and Nepal.
3. Historical and cultural factors: - Historical and cultural interest exercised tremendous influence over travelers. Large numbers of tourists are attracted every year by the great drawing power of stratfood on avon in England because of its association with Shakespeare, or the city of Agra in India because of its famous leaning tower. Large number of Americans and Canadians visit London because of its historical and cultural attractions. So also the world famous caves of Ajanta and Ellora in India are visited by tourists because of its architecture and painting.

4. Accessibility: - Accessibility is another important factor of tourism. There should be accessibility for each and every location of tourist attractions. If their locations are inaccessible by the normal means of transport, it would be of little importance. All kinds of transport facilities are to be made available for such locations. The distance factor also plays am important role in determining a tourist’s choice of a destination. Longer distance cost much than to short distances.
5. Amenities: - Facilities are very essential for any tourist centre. They are considered necessary aid to the tourist centre. For a seaside resort facilities like swimming, boating, yachting surf riding and such other facilities like deeming recreations and amusements are an important feature. There are two types of amenities viz. natural and man made. Beaches, sea-bathing, fishing, climbing, trekking, viewing etc. are come under the former category. Various types of entertainments and facilities which cater for the special needs of the tourists come under the latter category.
6. Accommodation: - The need and necessity of accommodation cannot be ignored in tourist destination. Accommodation plays a vital role in this field. Many changes have taken place in accommodation recently. New types of accommodation, particularly, holiday villages, apartment houses camping and caravan sites and tourist cottage etc, have become very popular. Usually a large number of tourists visit a particular spot simply because there is a first class hotel with excellent facilities. Today Switzerland, Holland, Austria and the Netherlands have gained reputation for good cuisine, comfort and cleanliness.
7. Safety and Security: Safety and security are vital to providing quality in tourism. More than any other economic activity, the success or failure of a tourism destination depends on being able to provide a safe and secure environment for visitors.
8. Other factors: - Besides the above factors, hospitality is one such factor among the variety of factors. It is the duty of the host country to be hospitable towards tourists. For this French and Indian governments have done a lot. A series of short films on various themes like “being courteous”, “cleanliness” and “welcoming” a visitor” were prepared and exhibited through a wide network cinema theatres all over the country. Slogans like “welcome a visitor- send back a friend” were displayed at various important exists and entry points like railway stations, airports and seaports. Following the above methods, many other countries launched “Be nice” campaigns. It means that the tourists must be treated as friends


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