The most important person who needs to learn from shop floor experiments is the top executive visiting with the sensei.
─ Michael Ballé, English Theatre Actor
There are millions of manufacturing and processing businesses around the world. The shop floor is an integral part of those businesses where the real action takes place. A shop floor is responsible to bring out the tangible, usable and superior quality products as per the specifications.
What is a Shop Floor?
The Business dictionary defines shop floor as – “The area in a manufacturing facility where assembly or production is carried out, either by an automated system or by workers or a combination of both. The shop floor may include equipment, inventory and storage areas.”
Shop floor is the place where design specifications are referred, machinery and manufacturing equipment are employed for production, parts are assembled or some raw material is processed. The shop floor is responsible to produce an intermediate or a final product.
Components of a Shop Floor
Here are some important components of a shop floor −
Material − This is either a man-made material or a natural resource. Material is a vital part which is used to make or develop some product.
Machinery, Equipment and Tools − Depending on the sector of production, there are various mechanical, electrical, electronic and thermal equipment along with various tools used on the shop floor. This factor speeds up the production and improves productivity of the business.
Information Technology − Today’s shop floors are equipped with Shop Floor Control Systems (SFC), Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES), Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM) Software, Quality Management Software (QMS), Real Time Data Retrieval from shop floor operations, and other such simulators.
Quality Control − When the product is ready, it is required to undergo certain quality tests and criteria to meet customer satisfaction. The Quality Control Section of a shop floor ensures that the product is flawless and up to the customer’s satisfaction.
Store Room − It stores spare parts and other such inventories. If there is an appropriate store room layout, its management is shrewd and there are proper SOPs in place, it will certainly reduce operational costs to quite an extent. An up-to-date store helps to predict the budget accurately.
Staff − Skilled and experienced staff is a great contributor to successful production on the shop floor. Such staff can work with minimal errors and maximum perfection.
What is Shop Floor Management?
Shop floor management is developing and managing the shop floor operations, inventory, equipment and workers. The following diagram displays the general phases of a manufacturing/processing/assembly business.
A shop floor being the participant of a production phase, its management requires dealing and handling all those factors which are directly involved in production.
As per Mr. Kiyoshi Suzaki (author of The New Shop Floor Management), shop floor management is practicing the three reals −
Genba (Real Place) − It refers to the location where the value is created. It can be either the factory floor or a business process.
Genbutsu (Real Thing) − The realistic information of all the problems rather than the documented information.
Genjitsu (Fact) − Mapping of current problems and their root causes with the help of valid and consistent data.
Thus, Suzaki claims that shop floor management is a closed loop process to monitor the problems onsite as well as to find out and remove their underlying root causes.
Objectives of Shop Floor Management
Here are some important objectives of shop floor management −
Routing movement of material on shop floor appropriately.
Sequencing the procedures and processes taking place on shop floor.
Scheduling of workforce, resources and operations.
Finding deviation from standard procedures and processes.
Identifying loopholes in shop floor communication.
Benefits of Shop Floor Management
Some vital benefits of shop floor management are given below −
Increased operational efficiency through standardization of operations.
Reduction in occurrence of errors in work.
Revealing of loopholes in production or processes.
Increases productivity of the staff.
Positive impact on the revenue of a manufacturing business.
Terms Used in Shop Floor Management
Here are some of the most commonly used terms in Aviation Management −
Term & Meaning
The quantity of goods produced at one time.
Computer Numeric Control (CNC)
It is automation of machine tools, which operate by precise programmed commands in contrast to manual control by hand wheels or levers.
Being on a clear path but choosing a wrong entrance to be on that path.
Just in Time (JIT)
It is same as lean manufacturing.
A Japanese inventory control system to control supply chain.
It is a business philosophy that means executing things as simply and cheaply as possible while providing best quality and fast service.
Manufacturing by increased efficiency and productivity, and decreasing waste.
Red Tag system
It is a communication tool in the form of red colored paper tags. It is used to identify items that a shop floor person has tagged for removal from the work area.
Shop Floor Inventory
It is the list of goods and material a shop floor holds for repair, resale, manufacturing, assembling, or processing for a length of time.
It is something that adds no value. The manufacturing waste due to overproduction, over processing, defects, unengaged employees, waiting time, transportation, inventory, and motion.
Cleaning agents are the most critical aids of housekeeping department in their day to day operations to keep the room and public area neat and clean.
When it comes to Cleaning chemicals / agents Taski or Diversey products are considered as the bench mark in hospitality industry.
There are specific products which need to be used for each cleaning requirement and these cleaning agents are given specific codes eg: R1, R2, R3 (The letter 'R' Stands for 'Room Care'.) Etc. for ease of identification, recognition and use. TASKI / Diversey R1: Cleaning and Sanitising of Bathroom / Toilet surfaces Area to be cleaned:
All batroom surfaces, sink, tub, tiles, floors and fittings How to Dilute:
For cleaning : 20 ml in 1 ltr. water
For sanitizing : 50 ml in 1 ltr. water Usage of this Cleaning Agent:
Spray directly on the surface to be cleaned
Leave for 2 seconds
Scrub if necessary and wipe surface with clean and dry cloth
Replace cloth regularly
TASKI / Diversey R2: All purpose cleani…
Overbooking is a situation when the total
number of rooms reserved for a certain period of time exceeds the total number
of rooms available for sale for the same period. In
other words it is the number of additional reservations need to achieve 100%
occupancy. Overbooking for hotels is a revenue management strategy that helps
to maximize the total capacity and increase the Room revenue. But
on the other hand overbooking for guests means waiting and inconvenience that
result in their dissatisfaction with the services. Below statistical and historical data
should be stored and processed by the reservation
manager or revenue
manager to calculate optimum overbooking levels. ·Total number of rooms available. ·Confirmed reservations vs no-shows based on historical data. ·Credit Card / Guaranteed reservations vs no-shows based on
historical data. ·Expected cancellations. ·Predicted stay overs and predicted under stays. ·Predicted Walk-in guests. ·Room
type wise overbooking levels. 1.10Advantages of
INDIA T he
history of our country can safely be divided into ancient, medieval and modern
periods. The ancient period started long ago, as long as humans have lived on
earth. In an earlier lesson you read about what happened in Medieval India i.e.
from about the 8th century A.D. and lasted till the beginning of 18th century.
Now, we shall read about the Modern period in History. During the last two
periods you must have found the society, economy, polity and culture very
different from each other. These differences which you may also call progress,
developed, continued and increased at a very fast pace and had very much more
deeper impact on our lives. You may recall that all those who came to India
from outside such as the Turks, the Afghans, and the Mughals made India their
home. But the British colonial rulers always remained foreigners to this land.
Nonetheless they brought profound social, economic and political changes to
suit their interests and in the process left deep…